CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION MEASURES
AE …

Lecture     :   3                                                                                              Year   :   IV
Tutorial    :   1                                                                                              Part    :   II    
Practical   :   0                                                                                                                     
Course Objective:
·         To familiarize students with global warming, climate change and causes of climate change, and its impact on agriculture.
·         To acquaint and equip the students with adaptation and mitigation options in the context of climate change and global warming activities.
1.       Climate and climate change science overview                                      [2 hours]
2.       Climate and weather, their parameters and global warming            [3 hours]
Definition, present scenario of global warming in global and Nepalese context, causes of global warming              
3.       Climate system                                                                                            [2 hours]
Earth’s energy balance, green house effect, hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, atmosphere-layer of atmosphere, atmospheric composition, green house gases, aerosols, atmospheric circulation, air pollution, local and regional air pollution effects on ocean and glaciers                                                                                                      
4.       Causes of climate changes:                                                                        [4 hours]
4.1.     Natural causes - changes in composition of earth’s atmosphere, changes in topography, land-sea geography, changes in solar luminosity, changes in earth’s orbit, volcanic activity and internal variability                        
4.2.     Human causes - chemically and radioactively important gases (carbondiooxide, methane, nitrous oxide, MontrĂ©al protocol gases, ozone, and stratospheric water vapor) green house gas emissions, changes in aerosol concentrations, land - use change, deforestation
5.       Climate change implications                                                                     [8 hours]
5.1.    Changes in surface temperature - long temperature records, changes in large- scale precipitation, changes in evapotranspiration, changes in soil moisture, drought, runoff and river discharge, changes in the troposphere and stratosphere, changes in water vapor, changes in clouds, changes in radiation, changes in atmospheric circulation, pattern of atmospheric circulation variability, changes in extreme events, changes in alpine glaciers.                              
5.2.    Changes in snow, ice and frozen land - changes in seasonal snow cover changes in river and lake ice changes in sea ice, changes in glaciers, ice caps ice sheets and ice shelves, changes in frozen ground, changes in the length of the north American growing season, changes in the distribution of plants and animals trends in precipitation storminess, and La nino.    
5.3.    Oceanic climate change and sea level - changes in global scale temperature and salinity, regional, changes in ocean circulation and water masses, ocean biogeochemical changes in sea level.              
6.       Global climate projections                                                                         [4 hours]
6.1.     Overview projected changes in emissions concentration and radioactive forcing projected changes in the physical climate system changes associated with biogeochemical feedbacks and ocean acidification.
6.2.     Quantifying the range of climate change projections, sea level change in the line 21st century, regional climate projection of Asia climate projection of Nepal
7.       Climate change mitigation:                                                                       [4 hours]
7.1.     Energy sector, Transport and infrastructure sector, industrial sector, Agriculture sector (Status of agricultural emissions, mitigating technologies and strategies, global and regional estimates of agricultural greenhouse gas mitigating potential, bioenergy feedstocks, Renewable sources of energy, implications of mitigation for sustainable development)
7.2.     Forestry sector; Waste management; cross-sectoral perspectives.
8.       Impact and adaptation to climate change:                                           [12hours]
8.1.     Historical climate trend of Nepal                                                                   
Historical extreme events of Nepal, Evidences of climate change on agriculture in Nepal, impact of climate change in major crops, impact of climate change on water resource, socio economic impact in climate change   
8.2.    Adaptation practices, options, constrains and capacity                             
Elements of adaptive capacity; vulnerability and adaptive capacity; Limits and barriers to adaptation inter-relationships between adaptive and mitigation.                                                                                   
8.3.    Key vulnerabilities and risks from climate change                                     
Global social systems; Regional vulnerabilities; Ecosystems and biodiversity; geophysical systems; Extreme events.  
8.4.    Climate change and sustainability                                                                   
Impacts and adaptation in the context of multiple stresses; Global and aggregate impacts; Regional, Sub-regional, local and sectoral development.                                                                                     
8.5.    Adaptation measures in agricultural sector                                                
Genotypes address climate change, agronomic practices for climate change adaptation, conservation agriculture, technologies for efficient utilization of irrigation water in irrigated agriculture, technologies for conservation and utilization of land and soil moisture in rain fed agriculture, community based adaptation, preparedness in agriculture for climate change-crop modeling.                                                                                                                             
9.       Global and national initiatives in climate change:                                 [6 hours]
9.1.     Intergovernmental panel on climate change(IPCC)
9.2.     Kyoto Protocol
9.3.     United Nations Framework Convention on climate change
9.4.     United Nations Human Development Programme UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008 fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a dividend world.
9.5.     Clean Development Mechanism(CDM)
9.6.     National Adaptation Programme of Action(NAPA)
9.7.     National projects related to climate change.


References:
1.       Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). http://www.cdm.unfcc.int
2.       Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC).http://www.ipcc.ch
3.       ISO 14064-1:2006. Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements.http://www.iso.org
4.       ISO 14064-2:2006. Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification, monitoring and reporting  greenhouse gas emission reductions or removal enhancements.http://www.iso.org
5.       ISO 14065:2007. Requirements for greenhouse gas validation and verification bodies for use in accreditation or other forms of recognition. http://www.iso.org
6.       PAS 2050. Assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services.http://bsigroup.com
7.       VCS (Voluntary Carbon Standard) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and other Land Use Projects. http://www.v-c-s.org
8.       Voluntary Carbon Standard Proposed Methodology Adoption for sustainable agricultural land management (SALM).http://www.v-c-s.org
9.       Climate change adaptation in developing countries: issues and perspectives for economic analysis Practical Action, Promoting adaptation to climate change in Nepal
10.   IPCC (Intergovernmental panel on climate change) 1996. Technologies, policies and measures for mitigating.
11.   Climate change. IPCC technical paper no.1.Geneva http://ipcc.ch/pub/IPCCTP.I(E).pdf.
12.   IPCC (Intergovernmental panel on climate change) 2001. Summary for policymakers and Technical Summary of the Working group III report: Climate Change2001: mitigation. Part of the contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report. Geneva.
13.   Sathaye, J & Meyers, S 1995. Greenhouse gas mitigation assessment: a guidebook. Dordretcht, kluwer.
14.   UNEP 1998. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use. Roskilde.
15.   Denmark, United Nations Environment Programme collaborating centre on energy and Environment, RISO National Laboratory.
16.   UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convection on Climate Change) 2001. Climate Change Information Kit. Paris.http://unfcc.int/resource/convkp.html.
17.   World Bank 1998. Greenhouse gas assessment handbook: a practical guidance document for the assessment of project-level greenhouse gas emissions. Washington, D.C., World Bank Global Environment Division. September.
18.   Gyanendra Karki, a discussion paper on NAPA Way Forward: Climate Change Adaptation project Prioritization in Nepal.
19.   Clean Energy Nepal, Climate Change Fact Sheet Issue No.7, 8, 2008.
20.   Dr. Juergen Kropp, Michael Scholoze, Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation 2009, www.gtz.de/climate.
21.   Climate Change Network Nepal, 2010, Climate change Training manual An Easy guide for Teachers.
22.   Maggie L. Walser (Lead Author); Stephen C. Nodvin (Topic Editor) “Climate change outline of topics”. In: Encyclopedia of Earths. Eds Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington D.C): [first published in the Encyclopedia of Earth January 24, 2010; last revised date January 24, 2010;Retrieved September 18, 2011]          < http://www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_change_outline_of_topics>
23.   ADB and ICIMOD, 2006. Environmental Assessment of Nepal-Emerging Issues and Challenges; Asian Development bank and the International Centre for mountain development, Kathmandu
24.   Nepal bureau of standards and metrology (NBSM) 1999.nepal Country Program for Phase out of ozone Depleting substance. Kathmandu, His Majesty Government of Nepal, NBSM/UNDP
25.   Lyangara san, M.L Tinachi and S Shrestha, 1002. The natural resources Hazards, Desertification and implication of Climate Change. http://www.mtnforum.org/resources/library/iyingx02p.htm
26.   Sustainable Development Agenda For Nepal (SDAN) 2002. http://www.scdp.org.np/sdan/
27.   OECD: Development and Climate Change in Nepal: Focus on Water resources and hydropower http://nepaldisaster.org/download/development.pdf



Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters in the Syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.
Chapter
Hours
Marks Distribution*
1
2
8
2
3
3
2
16
4
4
5
8
16
6
4
16
7
4
8
12
16
9
6
8
Total
45
80
* Minor deviation on mark distribution can be made.
 
Source:-Department Of Agricultural Engineering

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