March 2017

After a three year’s gap, finally Agrineer Journal has continued on its way. Nepal Agricultural Engineering Student’s Society ‘NAESS’ has been published The AGRINEER Vol. 5 in Feb 2017 through the large struggle of Agrineer Publication Team.
This is only one and leading journal in the Agricultural field of Nepal. This would be very useful for researcher, students and other related field worker also.
It Contents



Message from Co-Ordinator
It feels immense pride and honoured to work as a co-ordinator of entire family of "The Agrineer volume-5" publishing through NAESS Nepal, Purwanchal Campus.

 The journal has tried its almost best to share the researches and knowledge of several engineering experts of Nepal. I believe this journal will provide us the benchmark for continued improvement in overall development of agricultural engineering.

 As well know about the country's high dependency on agriculture, this type of document will help not only in transferring the new knowledge and development that are being made in a wider context for the betterment and upgrading the existing technologies and skill. As agriculture is one of the most important sector of country's development in which agricultural engineering is a very supporting part so the Agrineer, collection of agriculture related research papers, is helpful for all agricultural related persons as I hope.

 At last but not least, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and respect to Er. Jawed Alam, Er. Samir Shakya, Alankar kafle and Er. Sagar Kafle for their advice, suggestions and encouragement. I am heartily thankful to all the advisors, teachers, staffs, professionals, students and everyone who provided their helping hands for this publication. We are indebted by your support and cooperation and expect the same in the future too.

Ayush Poudel
Co-ordinator, Agrineer Vol-05

Message from Chairperson
Nepalese Society of Agricultural Engineers

First academic journal was published in the 17th century, beginning with the Journal des Sçavans in 1665 and followed by the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London a year later. The importance of a journal as a
means of wider disseminating knowledge has grown considerably since then. Journal articles are generally given greater prestige and merit within the scientific community, relative to other forms of disseminating research findings because published journal articles generally have gone through a rigorous screening process known as peer review. Articles published in peer reviewed journals are likely to remain a very important means of distributing research findings for the foreseeable future.

 The most advantage of publishing a paper in a journal is an additional point you can provide on your Curriculum Vitae – actually a very important point. The more of these points there are on your CV, the more attractive it will appear to prospective employers, particularly, if those employers are academic institutions who keep their eyes on the ranking in the research arena. Other benefits of publishing article in the journal are that it brings your name out in your professional field, and heightens your academic reputation. Publishing your findings in the journal is particularly important career step but, like all things that are worthwhile, it takes time; it also gets easier with practice. So don’t wait any longer. Start writing the journal paper now. This is the message I would like to convey to all my prospective Agricultural Engineers Colleagues.

 I am very much pleased to know that Nepal Agricultural Engineering Student's Society of Purwanchal Campus is publishing a journal "Agrineer" covering wide range of topics of technical, social, economical and environmental importance and related to Agricultural Engineering. I wish all the best!

Dr. Laxmi Devkota
Nepalese Society of Agricultural Engineers
January 1, 2017

Here is a Copy of this journal, Please click the link provided below to read/download. Please donot forgot to leave your review.

Clickhere to read/download 

Here are some important material for Farm Power and Engine system subject IOE B.Agri II/I and for related field also. Click the link given below to read/download the specific notes, reports and book.

Lab report on
These reports are prepared by paudelpadamprasad with referencing the book
Agricultural Engineering Vol.1 by T.P Ojha,
Element’s of Agricultural Engineering By Jagadish Sahary
And many more other sites.
These document will be very helpful to study about  different system and component and also for the preparation of  your lab report.

Lecture Slides
·        Combustion System
·        Intake and Exhaust System
·        Lubricating system
·        Starting system of tractor
These ppt slides are prepared by Yam Kumar Rai – lecturer at Department of Agricultural Engineering in Purwanchal Campus Dharan.

Lecture Notes
S. No
Name of the Topic/Practical
 These material are shared form educational website. These would be very useful for Agricultural Engineering student
·         Lecture note - Basic terminology of engine.pdf 
·         Lecture note - Fuel System.pdf 
·         Lecture note - Engine.pdf 
·         lecture note - governer.pdf 
These Notes are collected from Various sources.
Use Following book for main reference
Name of the Book
Elements of Agricultural Engineering
by Jadishawar Sahay
Principles of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 1
by A.M. Michael and T. P. Ojha
Principles of Farm Machinery
by Kepner, Bainer and Bergar
Tractor and their Power Units
by Barger, Carleton, Mckilben and Bainer

Work report format
This section illustrates a commonly used format.
Memo & Formal Reports 
Memo Reports: The memo report is the most common and prevalent type of technical writing found in industry today. It is an informal report and is strictly an internal type of communication. It is called a memo report because the word memo is derived from the word memorandum. A memo report is not a long report. 
1.  Heading Information 
2.  Statement of purpose 
3.  Background statement 
4.  Discussion 
5.  Conclusion 
6.  Recommendation 
        Heading information: It tells to whom the report is being written. It includes the following ; 
1.  Date 
2.  To  
3.  From 
4.  Subject 
        Statement of purpose: tells the reader why the report has been written. Purpose is always direct and concise. 
        Background Statement: it must be brief and concise.  
        Discussion:  It is a detailed and complete message about the subject. The discussion is where the basic organizational pattern and outline of your ideas are put into written form. 
        Conclusion: your finding or whatever you are writing for
        Recommendation: your suggestion based on your conclusion.
Formal Reports: Formal reports are the comprehensive documentation of major technical projects. By the nature of their scope and importance, they tend to be long and detailed. The actual scope and complexity of any particular formal report will depend on the substance of the report itself. Most formal reports are outside reports from one company to another. They cover many of the same subjects as inside memo-reports. Parts of the formal reports are: 
Preliminary Pages
        Front cover
-  The title of the report
-  Your name
-  Your previous academic term and department/program

        Letter of submittal:
        Table of contents
        List of figures and tables
        Summary/ abstract
        Main body

        Title page:      
 Full title of the report      
 Name of the writer       
 Writer's company       
 Person or company receiving the report          Date of the report 
        Table of content: table of contents contains all the primary and secondary heading of your report. Tables and figures are also included on table of content. 
        Executive summary:  it provides the overview of the report to the audiences. It should be limited to one to two pages only. It must include; opportunity or problem, cost implication, finding or conclusion and recommendation.   
        Main body:  it is a complete account 
        Conclusion: in this section you have to put the results and findings of your discussion.
The emphasis here is on what is purpose of the report and its implications. 
        Recommendations: is your opinion based on technical evidence and your expertise as a professional. 
        References: if you have quote from other then you must document references. These references are placed at separate section. 
        Bibliography: alphabetical list of all secondary sources which you have used. 
        Appendixes: it is pertinent but not crucial to the report. Appendix includes charts, graphs, tables etc. 
        Glossary: contains selected technical terms and their definitions. 
        Index: an alphabetical, cross-referenced list of all topics and subjects of import contained in the report.  

Feasibility Report: The purpose of a feasibility report is to show whether undertaking a certain project will be success or fail. The likelihood of success must be weighed against the odds for failure. The report presents the evidence for that set of odds for or against the success of the project.  Part of feasibility report: 
        Memo report heading -            Feasibility report -        Date:
-          To: 
-          From:
-          Subject:
-          Procedures and methods
-          Alternatives

Progress Report:  Periodic reports, sometimes called activity reports, allow management to stay informed on staff progress with ongoing technical work and projects. The most common types of periodic reports are weekly, monthly, and quarterly reports. Remember that these reports are primarily to keep management informed on technical work in progress. Because the report will contain information about ongoing work familiar to all concerned, there is no need for purpose, conclusions, or recommendations sections. 
Parts of progress report:
        Memo report headings
        Status of project
        Status report
                            Subject: ……………………………………..

Trip Reports: A trip report provides a permanent record of the trip for future reference. It records the actions taken and accomplishments during the trip. The experience of one employee on the trip becomes available for other personnel in the future. The structure of a trip report is as follows: 
        Memo-report headings  
        Purpose of the trip  
        Actions taken  
        Trip Report Date: __________  
        To: __________,Quality Control Director  
        From: __________, Product Manager

Proposal: A proposal is a selling document that advocates the purchase of a company's products or services. It can also come from within a single company and advocate the purchase of equipment or hiring of additional personnel. Proposals from one company to another generally tend to be lengthy and complex. Proposals that are generated within a single company tend to be brief and simple.

It is very important to keep in mind that a proposal is a selling document. It must persuade the receiving company to buy the goods or services. Unlike a feasibility report, a proposal is biased in favor of the project.
The following is a typical format for a proposal: 
        Title page
        Statement of problem 
        Proposed program 
        Cost estimate
        Time management/ schedule
        Work cited 

Minutes: Minutes are the written or recorded documentation that is used to inform attendees and non-attendees about what was discussed and what happened during a meeting. The minutes serve as a reminder of the commitments made during the meeting.  Minutes include:      
the name of participants                      the agenda items covered
decisions made by the participants to follow up actions committed
            Meeting minutes are disseminated to meeting participants within 24 hours of meeting. 

The report must be bound with firm covers and held together at the spine with a two or three-holed binding mechanism or spiral plastic binding. Individual rings or spring clips are unacceptable.
Use a 12-point serif font (e.g., Times Roman) and double-space the pages of your report, except the letter of submittal (which is single spaced) and perhaps your table of contents and list of figures and tables (which may be single spaced if they are long, but are otherwise double spaced). Include 3.8 cm (1.5 in) margins. Number your pages, starting with the table of contents (ii). Your introductory page will be page 1.
Preliminary pages
The first part of the report must be organized in the following sequence:
  • Front cover
  • Title page
  • Letter of submittal including statement of confidentiality (where required)
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures and tables
Preliminary pages should create a good first impression for the reader.
Front cover
The front cover must contain:
  • The title of the report
  • Your name
  • Your previous academic term and department/program.
Keep the report title shorter than 50 characters, including spaces. Use photographs or graphic design to improve the appearance of your cover.
If you use a transparent cover you do not need to list any of the above information, since your title page is visible.
Title page
The title page presents an expanded version of the information contained on the front cover. Beginning at the top of the page, list the following:
  • University
  • Your faculty
  • Title of report
  • Name and location of your employer
  • Your name, ID number, previous academic term and program, and date when the report was prepared
Letter of submittal
The letter of submittal must follow the format of a standard business letter. If you are submitting a PD 2 report, address your letter to the course instructor(s). Most programs want you to address your letter to the person who is the Department Chair. In other programs it may be to the person who is the School Director or to the Associate Dean of your faculty. Check with your undergraduate office to determine which name you are to use. Check that all names are spelled correctly. Use your employer's letterhead or use your home address on plain paper.
Your letter must contain:
  • report title and number (your first, second, and so on)
  • employer (or "PD # - <title of course>)
  • previous academic term
  • supervisor(s) (not required for PD courses)
  • department(s) (not required for PD courses)
  • main activity of employer and department (or of PD courses)
  • purpose of report
  • acknowledgments and explanation of assistance received
  • statement of endorsement (shown below)
  • statement of confidentiality, if required
  • your name, ID number, and signature
The statement of endorsement shall read: "This report was written entirely by me and has not received any previous academic credit at this or any other institution."
In the sample below, required items are shown in bold face for your convenience. These items should not be in bold face in your own letter of submittal. Although you will include the letter of submittal with your report, it is not a component of report. Consequently, do not assign a page number to your letter of submittal and do not include it in your table of contents.
491 Birchmount Cres.
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R4V 1S5

(current date)

(name of your department chairperson)
(name of your department)
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario
N2L 3G1

Dear (name of your department chairperson):

This report, entitled "The Health Effects of Chlorine in our Water Supply" was prepared as my 1B Work Report for Dynamic Engineering Consultants .  This is my first work term report. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the benefits and negative consequences of chlorine content in public water supplies.

Dynamic Engineering Consultants provide customers with top-of-the-line engineering consulting on a large number of topics, ranging from environmental impact to municipal design in Southwestern Ontario.

The Environmental Consulting section, in which I was employed, is managed by Jennifer Wong and is primarily involved with providing clients with consultation on large projects that may have adverse environmental effects.

This report was written entirely by me and has not received any previous academic credit at this or any other institution.  I would like to thank Ms. Jennifer Wong for providing me with valuable advice and resources, including documentation and leads to informative web sites. I also wish to thank Mr. Ken Smith for proofreading my report and improving its appearance. I received no other assistance. 



(Your name)
(your Waterloo ID)
Table of contents
The table of contents lists all main sections in your report and any subsections with headings. Ensure that each entry in the table of contents refers to the correct page number. Connect each entry to its page number with a dotted line. Align the page numbers on the right side of your page. Do not include the letter of submittal in your table of contents. Note the use of lowercase Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv) for the table of contents, list of figures and tables, and summary.
List of figures and​ tables
If you use figures or tables in your report, you must list them in the preliminary pages of your report, immediately after your table of contents page. 
If you use only tables, you will provide a list of tables. If you use only figures, your report will have a List of Figures. If you use both figures and tables, you will have a List of Figures and Tables. However, if your report includes ten or more figures and/or tables, you should provide a List of Tables and a separate List of Figures, each on its own page.

Each list identifies its components by number, title, and page number. Do not list any tables or figures that appear in the appendices.
Summary or ​abstract
Normally a technical report contains a summary, while a scientific report contains an abstract. The faculties of Engineering, Environment, Mathematics and Science require a technical report with a summary. Other faculties may allow an abstract in their reports.
The summary should be written after you complete the rest of the report. It should be able to stand alone. Frequently, it is the only part read by management. It should answer, "What does this report contain?"
Keep your summary concise (preferably one page). You may use lists, but easy-to-read sentences are best. The summary should present the:
  • purpose of the report
  • scope of the report
  • major points, including a summary of your research methodology
  • highlights of the conclusions and recommendations
Following such an organizational pattern does not mean, however, that the conclusions and recommendations are simply restated. The summary, instead, highlights significant or key items. It should not refer explicitly to particular components of the report. For example, the following statement is unacceptable in a summary:
"Five alternative shaft sizes were considered and the stress magnitudes calculated for each shaft are shown in Table 6. The final shaft design is shown in Figure 3."
This report concentrates on the design of a digital circuit that is a portion of an interface between a command generator and a satellite simulator.

The circuit demodulates an incoming recovered subcarrier signal and converts commands to a parallel format that is introduced to a data converter.

The purpose of this investigation is to provide an analysis for this circuit, with considerations given to the entire interface setup.

Demodulation is achieved through the use of a missing pulse detector that checks for phase changes.

A clock is generated by detecting the edges on the carrier.

The tone decoder uses the data and clock to recognize command bits, and converts the data into a parallel signal with shift registers.

It is concluded that the digital solution implemented is completely effective for this application, except during the presence of an unclean incoming signal or the absence of all wave input.

A method of eliminating this inconsistency involving the use of an LM567 chip is discussed, and it is also concluded that this method is entirely practical.

The removal of unexpected signal distortions and the use of the proposed circuit addition are recommended.
The abstract is a short, self-contained paragraph, usually no more than 200 words, at the beginning of your report. It is a synopsis of information contained in the report. An abstract states the problem and gives a summary of your main discoveries and conclusions. Your statements should be clear and concise so that a reader can identify the contents of the report and decide whether or not to read the rest of it.
The hypothesis that hostile and nonhostile individuals would differ in both magnitude and duration of cardiovascular reactivity to relieved anger was tested.

Participants were 66 older adults (mean age, 62; 38 women and 28 men; 70% Caucasian American, 30% African American).

Each took part in a structured interview scored using the Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique.

Later each relived a self-chosen anger memory while heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured continuously using an Ohmeda Finapres monitor.

Hostile participants had larger and longer-lasting blood pressure responses to anger.

African Americans also showed longer-lasting blood pressure reactivity to anger.

Health and measurement implications are discussed.

Key words: anger; cardiovascular reactivity; cardiovascular recovery; hostility; Ohmeda Finapres monitor; older adults.
Taken from:
Fredrickson B.L., Maynard, K.E., Helms, M.J., Haney, T.L., Siegler, I.C. & Barefoot, J.C. (2000)  Hostility predicts magnitude and duration of blood pressure response to anger. .Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23 (3), 229 - 243.
What are the differences between the Abstract and the Summary?
The summary condenses the entire report into a few short paragraphs, at the front of the report. The summary does not describe the report: it is the report in miniature. Saying that recommendations and conclusions are made is not specific enough; you need to say what the recommendations and conclusions are. It answers the questions "what is the problem?", "how can it be solved?", and "what should I do about it?"
An abstract is more common in research papers than in reports. It ranges in length from 50 to 200 words and is a highly condensed summary. The abstract states a problem, the method of approach, and the results. The abstract is separate from the report and is often inserted in an information retrieval system. For example, an abstract is included in such things as magazine listings of report topics, or a computer database listing of report topics, whereas a summary is included in the report.
The introduction is always the first section in the body of your report. It presents your work and defines the problem or project. It should supply enough background information to help the reader understand why your report was written and how it relates to similar work. Your objectives should be written clearly and concisely. However, the introduction should deliver a sufficient impact to encourage continued reading.
1.0 Introduction
Texts regarding politics and administration guide one's attention to the actions of leaders who specialize in decision-making: presidents, senators, generals, and managers.

The study of preparation, on the other hand, concerns the general public who is actively seeking to be more than pawns for others to direct and manipulate; striving instead to shape policies and organizations according to our own desires (Nagel, 1987).

Toffer (1970) predicted an increasing emphasis on temporary groups brought together for a specific task and a decreasing emphasis on permanent states in bureaucratic administration.

This prediction has proven true, and we now envision a world with greater opportunities for people to play a role in decisions affecting their lives, a greater diffusion of relevant and useful information and a profound need for all citizens within a democracy to be effective decision makers.

Although the most common form of participation known to man is voting and campaigning, it does, in fact, include much more.

In recent decades, the democratic ideal has intensified, inspiring a search for richer, and less perfunctory forms of self-government.

The focus of this report is how effective a citizen participation program can be applied effectively to the case of Corporation of the Town of Milton.

The study includes an evaluation of what participation is and why it should be promoted, the principles involved in creating a trusting relationship with the public, and an application of these principles in the aforementioned case.
You state the problem (or project) in your introduction. The main section analyzes the problem, then summarizes and explains your findings. Organize the report into sections; use a clear and consistent system of headings. You may be able to follow the commonly used system of "Materials and Methods," "Results," "Discussion and Interpretations," with appropriate subheadings. If your topic dictates its own system of headings and subheadings, ensure that the reader is able to follow them easily.
Consider using the numbering system employed in this document. Do not use more than three levels of numbers: use bullets or dashes instead of a fourth level. Where you indent for a subheading, the entire subsection below must follow that new margin. Remember that capitalization and bolding makes your headings stand out more.
When citing sources, follow the standard accepted by your faculty. If your faculty has not recommended or prepared a style manual, adopt a style used by some of the reference books or journals in your discipline. A good source is the Modern Languages Association's style guide.
The body of the report, including the introduction, should be between 2,000 and 4,000 words. If you find it necessary to exceed this length, discuss your report with your field co-ordinator or a faculty member before you complete it. The "body" is defined as the main section of the report which follows the introduction and precedes the conclusions.
Figures and tables
Table 13.   The crop nectar amounts found among females nectar feeding,
                resting and blood seeking.

Proportion (%) with indicated Nectar rank
Nectar feeding


Blood seeking
Nectar feeding


Blood seeking
The crop nectar amounts were classified being great (3) (>2.0 , moderate (2) (0.52.0 , little (1) (<0.5 or as having no apparent nectar.
Table 1.   Per Capita Residential Consumption of Airdrie and Calgary 1994-1999 (Cubic Meters/Month).
Percent Increase


Figures and tables help clarify your work for the reader. Any figure or table, however, must serve a specific purpose. Consider whether the information is better presented graphically or in a table. Figures and tables must be cited in the text, and should be placed as soon as is practical after the reference. You should present large volumes of figures and tables in an appendix.
Captions may be typed above or below the table or figure (use either convention, not both). Captions for both figures and table must be concise, but must also be inclusive and comprehensive. The caption and its table are inseparable; either is usually meaningless alone. Remember you must refer in the main body of your report to the data shown in figures and tables.
  • Tables : Use a table only when you need to present complex or voluminous data that contain several variables. If the data set is small or has few variables, consider putting the information into the text rather than into a table. If you do use tables, check in journals or reference books in your discipline for layout and design examples. Generally, the static elements are listed vertically and variables are listed horizontally. Do not separate the vertical columns with lines. Use the standard rules for SI Units. These are often summarized in reference books on writing reports and can be found in the metric practice guide. Place large tables on separate pages. Short tables should be placed in the text.
  • Figures : Figures include line drawings (diagrams, histograms, graphs) and photographs. Figures are an excellent way to relate various aspects of your data that are often difficult to present in words. Use photographs only if they are exceptionally clear and serve a better purpose than a hand-drawn diagram. Again, check the professional journals for your discipline in the university library or a local library for examples of effective use of figures. Large figures should appear on separate pages. Small figures should be placed in the text.
 Conclusions and recommendations
Conclusions and recommendations are very important to your report, and these sections sometimes cause confusion. A simple rule is to place any statements that you can derive from the main body's investigation in the conclusions section of your report. Include in the recommendations any comments that you feel might assist in future activities. These future activities are probably not your responsibility and you should attempt to give the reader the benefit of your experience from working on the problem.
5.0 Conclusions
Hybrid-electric vehicles outperform electric vehicles.
Electric cars are well suited to city traffic but lack the performance needed for highway use.  The hybrid vehicle's additional combustion engine helps to outperform the electric vehicle on the highway.
The cars must be priced lower to become more popular.
Government subsidies in some states and provinces significantly reduce the prices of low-emissions vehicles.  Hybrids will be popular because many consumers cannot afford separate highway and city vehicles.
The cars damage the environment.
All the cars generally use less energy but at reduced performance.  This will always be a tradeoff area.  Hybrids have low emissions, electrics have zero emissions, and both are a sound solution to urban smog.
Gasoline improvements, fuel cells and alternative fuels are future prospects.
Gasoline engines and exhaust systems have experienced major technical< advances that make hybrid vehicles more promising.  Fuel cells will provide clean power to the cars of the future.  Alternative fuels will remain a major area of research because of widespread dependency upon fossil fuels.
Just like the summary, conclusions should be brief (preferably one page), but complete and understandable. You may use lists, but easy-to-read sentences are best. Each paragraph should deal with only one aspect of the study. Conclusions may only be drawn if they are supported fully by the analyses described in the body of your report. Three or more conclusions are expected.
Recommendations should be organized in the same manner as conclusions and should follow them on a separate page. Recommendations are essentially speculative, but they should follow logically from your conclusions. Recommendations should be specific, measurable, and attainable. Two or more recommendations are expected.
6.0 Recommendations
An extensive analysis should be conducted into the painting processes of all other parts on the MS2000. The paint racks should be examined for their allowance of flexibility and constraint on the parts they hold. A study should also be done on the effects of the immense heat on the plastic parts, and of the defects that can be attributed to it.
1. Continued Sampling
Limited capability studies (50 samples) should be conducted on an average of two times per month on the switch bezels and other parts to ensure that they continue to be produced defect-free.
2. Better Supervision
A full-time operator should be hired in order to ensure that SPC data is being correctly entered consistently. This person should also bring to the attention of the engineers any fluctuation on the data that may indicate a problem in the production process.
3. Engineering Advice
During a 100% sort, an engineer should always be present in order to answer any questions the operators may have about the parts, or to offer advice if early warning signs of new defects should arise.

It might help to think of your report in this way: management likely reads only the summary, conclusions, and recommendations; technical staff and your boss may read to the end of the main text; successors read the whole report.
This section can also be named Works Cited or Bibliography according to the preference of your faculty. List all sources referred to in the report. Do not try to impress the reader by listing publications that you have not used. If you use personal conversations as a source, list the participants' positions and the conversation's theme, time, and place.
Here is a link to help you with the creation of your bibliography/reference list. Please review the various style guides at the link below to decide which one to use (if you are uncertain, be sure to inquire at your undergraduate office to determine which one you should follow):
  • University of Waterloo compiled list of style citation and style guides
Citing electronic sources can be a challenge. If one or more of your references are taken from the Internet, e-mail, online newspapers, etc., you may find the style guides available from these links beneficial:
Add a glossary only if the text is heavy with specialized terms, mathematical symbols, or technical jargon. If you have only the occasional term in your report, define it as part of the text:
"...that pressure (P) is a function of temperature (T)..."
"...the snout area contains a pair of nasolabial grooves (NLG; Fig. 4C)..."
Not all reports have or need an appendix. Appendices can be considered stand-alone documents, and thus could have their own table of contents. The appendix should contain any information that substantiates the report, but that is not required for a comprehensive understanding of your work. The appendix may contain bulky data such as lengthy tables, computer printouts, descriptions of processes or operations, analytical procedures, or maps. Assign consecutive letters or numbers along with names to each, for example: "Appendix A -- Detailed Street Calculations," "Appendix B -- Bearing Plate Calculations," or "Appendix 1 --Site Maps."


for download pdf file click here