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What is Bioengineering?

Bioengineering is use of living plants either alone or in configuration with small scale civil engineering structures/ non-living plant materials for the purpose of reducing shallow seated instability & controlling erosion in slopes.

picture from: https://chandrashekharasandprints.wordpress.com

Engineering functions of Bioengineering

Engineering functions of Bioengineering to be performed are:
a) Anchor
b) Catch
c) Armour
d) Drain
e) Reinforce
f) Support

Steps for Bioengineering

To implement slope stabilization works including both civil & bio-engineering, following steps are implemented:
I. Make initial plan
2. Prioritize the works:
3. Divide the side or slope into segments
4. Assess the side
5. Determine civil engineering works
6. Choose the right bio-engineering techniques
7 Design the civil & bio-engineering works
8. Select the species to use
9. Calculate the required quantities and rates
10. Finalise priority against available budget
11. Plan plant needs
12. Arrange implementation & prepare documents
13. Prepare the plant propagation
14. Make the necessary side arrangement
15. Prepare the side
16. Implement the civil engineering work
17. Implement the bio-engineering work
18. Monitor the works
19. Maintan the works (Routine & preventive maintenance)

Learn more through following article 

Role of Bio-engineering in Nepal

हाम्रो देशको कमलो भौगोलिक बनावट, भिराला पहाडहरु, अत्याधिक वर्षा आदिको कारणले प्राकृतिक भू क्षय भैरहन्छ भने बढ्दो जनसंख्याको चाप, खेतीयोग्य जमिनको सिमितता, खेतीपाती गर्ने पुरानो चलन, प्राकृतिक स्रोतहरुको जथाभावी प्रयोग एवं अज्ञानताको कारणले कृत्रिम भु-क्षय भैरहेको कुरा हामी सबैमा अवगतै छ । जसबाट ठूलो धनजनको क्षति हुने गरेको छ । यो समस्याबाट देशले मुक्ति पाउनको लागि विभिन्न ठाउँमा विभिन्न किसिमका सिभिल संरचनाहरुको निर्माण गर्दै गरेको भएतापनि ती समस्याहरूबाट मुक्ति पाउन सफल भएको देखिदैन । तसर्थ उपयुक्त किसिमको कम खर्चिलो एव दिगो प्रविधिको प्रयोगबाट भू-संरक्षण गर्नु आजको आवश्यकता बनेको छ र त्यो प्रविधि बायो इंन्जिनियरिङ मात्र हुन सक्छ।

# वायो ईन्जिनियरिङ के हो ?
साधारण अर्थमा भन्ने हो भने वायो ईन्जिनिरिङको एउटा शाखा हो। जसमा जिवित बोटबिरुवा (वनस्पति) को एकल प्रयोग वा जिवित वनस्पति र सिभिल ईन्जिनियरिङ संरचनाहरुको दुवैको संयुक्त प्रयोग गरेर भूक्षय रोकथाम गर्ने एउटा प्रविधि हो । यो प्रविधि तुलनात्मकरुपमा सस्तो, स्थानिय स्रोत साधन, सीप र जनसहभागितामा आधारित भएकोले बढी दिगो र प्रभावकारी र जो कोहीले पनि सजिलैसँग कार्यान्वयन तथा अनुशरण गर्न सक्छ ।

# परिभाषा
विशुद्ध इन्जिनियरिङ संरचनाहरु मात्र भू-क्षय रोकथामको दिगो उपाय होईन। एकातिर ईन्जिनियरिङ स्ट्रचर धेरै महंगा हुन्छन् भने अर्को तिर यसको लागि धेरै दक्ष प्रविधि (skill Technique) को आवश्यकता पर्दछ । जुन क्रमशः ग्रामीण स्तरमा निर्माण गर्न पनि सम्भव हुँदैन भने उपभोक्ताहरुबाट व्यहोर्न पनि असंभव हुन्छ । निर्माण कार्य समाप्तीको लगत्तै इन्जिनियरिङ सरचनाहरुको शक्ति उच्चतम हुन्छ भने समयको अन्तरालसँग घट्दै गई शूज्य हुन पुग्छ तर वनस्पति संरचना (Bio Engineering Structure) मा शुरुमा शक्ति शुन्य भई समय अन्तरालमा उच्चतम हुन पुग्छ सिभिल इन्जिनियरिङ स्ट्रक्चर र वनस्पति संरचनाको संयुक्तरुपमा प्रयोग गर्दा इन्जिनियरिङ संरचनाको कार्य विस्तारै वनस्पतिमा सर्छ र बनस्पतिले इन्जिनियरिङ संरचनाको कार्य गर्दछ ।

Engineering Function Vegetation

# वनस्पति ईन्जिनियरिङका कार्यहरु (Engineering Function Vegetation)
१. समात्नु (Catch): बोट बिरुवाले वर्षाको पानीलाई ठाडै तलतिर बग्नबाट रोक्दछ साथै भू-क्षय प्रक्रियामा झर्ने ढुंगा, माटो तथा लेदोलाई आफ्नो फेद नजिकै थुपार्दछन् ।
२ कवच (Armour) :- वनस्पति तथा घाँसपातहरुले माटो बग्ने कार्यलाई रोक्न जमिनलाई सुरक्षा कवच (Protective Cover) प्रदान गर्दछ ।
३. जेलिनु (Dense Roots) माटो भित्र जेलिएर रहेको वनस्पतिका जराहरुले (Dense Roots) माटो र ढुंगालाई समातेर राख्ने शक्ति प्रदान गर्दछ ।
४. अड्काउनु (Anchor) :- रुखका मुल जरा जमिन भित्रसम्म गएर रुखलाई बलियो गरी उभ्याउँदछ र माथिबाट झरेका ढुंगाका स-साना टुक्राहरु एवं भिरालोलाई अड्याउन सहयोग गर्दछ ।
५. सहारा (Support) :- वनस्पतिका मूल जरा वा सहायक जराहरुले भिरालो सतहमा रहेका ढुंगा एवं माटोलाई एकिकृत गरी भूक्षय रोकथाममा सहारा प्रदान गर्दछ ।
६. निकास(Drain) :- बनस्पतिले जमिनको सतह र सतहमुनिको अनावश्यक पानीलाई आफ्नो जरा प्रणालीको सहायताले जमिन भित्र पानी निकासको कार्य गर्दछ ।

Bio Engineering Techniques

# वायो ईन्जिनियरिङ उपायहरु (Bio Engineering Techniques)
१. बीउ छर्ने (Grass, Tress & shrub Sowing) - निकै अफ्ठ्यारो, अस्थिर, भिरालो चट्टानी भाग जहाँ बिरुवा रोप्न अफ्ठ्यारो हुन्छ, त्यस ठाउँमा सिर्व बीउ छरिन्छ ।
२. बांस अम्रिसो रोप्ने (Bamboo broomgrass planting) :- अति भिरालो ठाउँमा बाँसले पञ्चलि (Toe wall) को काम गर्दछ ।
३. जिवित छेकबधि (Live Checkdam) :- सानासाहरुमा छिटो सर्ने रुख तथा बिरुवाहरुको हाँगा रोपिन्छ ।
४. पखल बाँध र तार जालीको बाँध (Loose stone & Gabion chechdam) :- गल्छीको शिरमा, बेडमा र वरिपरि छुट्टै वा नियन्त्रण बांधसंग संयुक्तरुपमा बिरुवा रोपिन्छ ।
५. बस लेयरिङ (Brush Layering) :- कम भिरालो तथा खुकुलो माटोले पुरेको जमिनमा सिमली, असुरो जस्ता छिटै सर्ने जातका रुखका हाँगाहरु तेर्सो लाइनमा सुताएर रोपिन्छ ।
६ किला र बाँसको छेकवार (Brush wood checkdam) :- गल्छीहरुमा बाँस र काठको प्रयोगबाट छेकबांध बनाइन्छ ।
७. मुढे बांध (Log dam) :- अलि बढी गहिराई र चौडाई भएको गल्छीमा यसप्रकारको बाँधको प्रयोग गरिन्छ ।

Features of Bio-engineering

  • कम खर्चिलो (Cost effective)
  • विभिन्न वनस्पतिहरु स्थानीय स्तरमा उपलब्ध हुने,
  • उच्च प्रविधि र दक्ष जनशक्ति नचाहिने,
  • ग्रामीण स्तरबाट भिरालोको अस्थिरता र भूक्षय घटाउन सकिने,
  • वनस्पतिबाट फलफूल उत्पादन भई आयआर्जनमा वृद्धि गर्न सकिने,
  • पर्यावरणीय सुधार (Envoronmental Improvement) हुने,
  • वनस्पतिमा विविधता हुने काम गर्न सजिलो हुने,
  • लामो समयसम्म टिकाउ हुने,
  • मर्मत गर्न सजिलो हुने ।

Varieties of vegetation suitable for Bio-engineering

# वायो ईन्जिनियरिङका लागि उपयुक्त बिरुवाहरु
१. घाँस प्रजाति (Grasses): अम्रिसो, बाबियो, दुबो, कांख, खर, नरकट, तिते निगालो, पुर्के, खसखस, बांस आदि ।
२. नेपियर, झाडी बुट्टयान प्रजाति (Shrubs) : अर्गेली, आंक, असुरो, बैस, झुजेत्रो, घनेरी, घुसुन, केतुकी, अलैची, ऐसेलु, निलकाढा, सिम्ले, लालुपाते, कदम, कांडा फूल आदि ।
३. रुख प्रजाति (Treeses): उत्तिस, बैस, बकाइनो, चिलाउने, दबदबे, बागियो, खयर, सिसौ, चॉप, चिउरी लांकुरी, पैयौं, फलेदो आदि ।



  


Post: Agricultural Engineer Instructor in Agriculture & Forestry University, Nepal

Site Address: https://sc.afu.edu.np/ (Notice and Apply now)

Qualifications: B.E. in Agri engineering/B.Sc. Agri. Engineering with at least second division from any recognized institutions. 

Syllabus: PDF icon Download

Examination format: PDF icon Download (WRITTEN EXAMINATION SCHEME AND SKILL TEST FOR OPEN COMPETITION)



Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering (Instructor) 

1. General Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering. 

    1. Principles of Crop Production (cereals, pulses, oilseed, cash crops, vegetables, and fruits) 
    2. Plant Physiological Process 
    3. Soil fertility, properties and classification 
    4. Soil-water -plant relationship: infiltration, evaporation, transpiration and   consumptive use, and evapotranspiration (ET) estimation methods 
    5. Crop water requirements, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation effectiveness 
    6. Irrigation and drainage methods (furrow irrigation, border irrigation, check basin irrigation, sprinkler and drip/tickle irrigation, surface and sub-surface drainage system) 
    7. Soil erosion (rain drop erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, stream channel erosion) and their control measures (engineering and bioengineering methods) 
    8. Human, animal, electrical, and mechanical powers  
    9. Introduction to primary and secondary tillage implements 
    10. Planting, harvesting, threshing machines, and pumps 

2. Surveying  

    1. General: Classifications; Principle of surveying; Selection of suitable method; Scales, plans and maps 
    2. Leveling: Methods of leveling; Leveling instruments and accessories; Principles of leveling  
    3. Theodolite and Traverse surveying: Temporary adjustments of theodolites; Fundamental lines and desired relations; Tachometry- stadia method; trigonometrically leveling; Checks in closed traverse  
    4. Contouring: Characteristics of contour lines; Method of locating contours; Contour plotting  
    5. Layout: Small buildings; Simple curves  
 

3. Construction Materials  

  1. Stone: Formation and availability of stones in Nepal; Methods of laying and construction with various stones  
  2. Cement: types, Ingredients, properties and manufacture; Admixtures 
  3. Clay and Bricks: type, manufacture, laying, bonds 
  4. Paints and Varnishes: type and selection; preparation techniques; use 
 

4. Mechanics of Materials and Structures  

    1. Mechanics of Materials: Internal effects of loading; Ultimate strength and working   stress of materials  
    2. Mechanics of Beams: Relation between shear force and bending moment; Thrust, shear and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate beams under various types of loading 
    3. Simple Strut Theory 
 

5. Hydraulics 

    1. General: Properties of fluid; mass, weight, specific weight, density, specific volume, specific gravity, viscosity; Pressure and Pascal's Law  
    2.  Hydro Kinematics and Hydro Dynamics: Energy of flowing liquid; elevation energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, internal energy  
    3.  Measurement of Discharge: Weirs and notches; Discharge formulas 
    4.  Flows: Characteristics of pipe flow and open channel flow 
 

6. Soil Mechanics 

    1. General : Soil types and USCS soil classification; Three phase system of soil; Unit weight of soil mass- bulk unit weight, saturated unit weight, submerged unit weight and dry unit weight; Interrelationship between specific gravity, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, percentage of air voids air content and density index  
    2. Soil Water Relation: Darcy's law; Factors affecting permeability 
    3. Compaction of Soil: Factors affecting soil compaction; Optimum moisture content; relation between dry density and moisture content  
    4. Earth Pressures: Active and passive earth pressures 
    5. Foundation Engineering: Terzaghi's general bearing capacity formulas and their application 
  

7. Structural Design 

    1. R.C Section in Bending: Under reinforced, over reinforced and balanced sections 
    2. Shear and Bond for a R.C Section: Shear resistance of a R.C section; Types of shear reinforcement 
    3. Axially Loaded R.C. columns: Short and long columns 
    4. Design and Drafting of R.C. Structures: Singly and doubly reinforced rectangular beams; Simple one way and two way slabs; Axially loaded short and long columns 
 

8. Building Construction Technology 

    1.  Foundations: Subsoil exploration; Type and suitability of different foundations- shallow and deep; Shoring and dewatering 
    2. Walls: Type of walls and their functions; Choosing wall thickness, height to length relation; Use of scaffolding 
    3. Damp Proofing: Sources of dampness; Remedial measures to prevent dampness 
    4. Concrete Technology: Constituents of cement concrete; Grading of aggregates; Concrete mixes; Water cement ratio  
    5. Factors affecting strength of concrete  
    6. Form work 
    7. Curing 
 

9. Soil and Water Engineering 

    1. Water Conveyance and Control: Design of open channels, channel linings, drop structures and spillways, water control and division structures; Design of under- ground pipe conveyance system  
    2. Land Development: Land leveling-grading design methods, estimation of earthwork quantities, leveling and grading procedures, equipment for land grading and field layout  
    3. Ground Water, Irrigation Wells and Pumps: Design of wells; Wells construction procedures;  Indigenous water lifting devices, positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps, vertical turbine pumps, submersible pumps, propeller and mixed flow pumps, selection of pumps and their performances, repaired and maintenance  
    4. Conservation structures, watershed management and water harvesting techniques 
 

10. Farm Structure Development  

  1. Planning of farmstead, farm residence, water supply and sanitation  
  2. Farm road, farm fencing, farm ponds, farm irrigation and drainage  
  3. Animal Shelters: Dairy barn (housing requirements, stanchion and loose housing barns with milking barn, pen barn); Poultry housing (housing requirements, types of poultry house, brooder house;  Sheep and goat housing (types, housing requirements, construction material, layout); Swine housing (types, housing requirements, construction materials, layout);  Aqua cultural engineering (types, pond construction)  
  4. Storage Structures: Fodder storage structure, feed storage structure, food grain 
  5. storage structure, indigenous storage structure, bag storage structure, grain bins, and modern godown; Farm machinery storage structure and farm workshop  
  6. Farm and Rural Electrification: Power transmission and distribution, house wiring and its components; AC motor (single phase and poly phase), starters, selection of electric motors, care and maintenance of electric equipments; Microhydro power plants  
 

11. Estimating and Costing 

    1. General: Main items of work; Units of measurement  
    2. Rate Analysis: Basic general knowledge of the use of rate analysis and norms  
    3. Specifications: Interpretation of specifications  
    4. Valuation: Methods of valuation  
 

12. Rural Engineering  

  1.  Green Roads 
  2. Water Supply and Sanitation Engineering (Source of water and its selection: gravity and artisan springs, shallow and deep wells; infiltration galleries) 
  3. Bio engineering Measures 
  4. Renewable Energy 

 HIGHLIGHTS or Main points of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Useful for objective / MCQ question of any related exam like PSC, GATE, IOE entrance.
  • Hydrology is the science, which deals with the occurrence, circulation and distribution of the water and earth's atmosphere.
  • Sun is the source of energy for the hydrologic cycle. The area of land draining into a stream or a watercourse at a given location is called catchments area.
  • All forms of water that reach the earth from the atmosphere is known as precipitation. The magnitude of precipitation varies with time and space.
  • The net precipitation at a place and its form depend upon a number of metrological factors. tropical cyclone, also called cyclone in India, hurricane in USA and typhoon in South- East Asia.
  • The centre of storm is called eye.
  • The precipitation is collected and measured in a rain gauge. Mass curve of rainfall are very useful in extracting the information on the duration and magnitude of a storm.
  • Intensity of storm decreases with increase in storm duration. The parts of precipitation, which infiltrates and moves laterals through upper layer of soil and meets to stream is called inter flow.
  • The rate of evaporation is proportional to the difference between the saturation vapour pressure at the water temperature and actual vapour pressure in the air. Rate of evaporation increases with wind speed upto a critical speed.
  • Energy-budget method is an application of the law of conservation of energy.
  • The maximum rate at which a given soil at a given time can absorb water is defined the infiltration capacity.
  • Average infiltration rate is called infiltration index.
  • Wire gauge is used to measure the water-surface elevation from above the surface.
  • Dilution method of flow measurement depends upon continuity principle.
  • A perennial stream is one which always carries some flow.
  • An intermittent stream has limited contribution to the ground water.
  • An ephemeral stream is one, which does not have any base flow contribution. The flow-duration curve is also known as discharge -frequency curve.
  • The total catchments area of all the rivers in India is approximately 30.5 million square kilometres.
  • Minor catchments have an area less than 2000 square kilometre. Medium catchments have an area between 2000 to 20000 square kilometre.
  • Large catchments have an area greater than 20000 square kilometre.
  • The missing data of rainfall can be computed by hydrology budget method. Flood hydrograph is useful for analyzing the stream characteristics.
  • The time interval between centre of mass of rainfall to the centre mass of hydrograph is called as lag time!
  • S-curve is also known as S-hydrograph.
  • S-hydrograph is a hydrograph produced by a continuous effective rainfall at a rate for an infinite period.
  • The limiting case of a unit hydrograph of zero duration is known as instantaneous unit hydrograph
  • An imaginary surface representing the artesian pressure in artesian aquifer is called piezometric surface.
  • The hydrostatic pressure within artesian aquifer is some times greater enough to cause the water to rise in a well.
  • The hydraulic resistance is also called reciprocal leakage factor. The vc ume leakage factor of semi-pervious layer generally ranges between 100 to 40,000000 min.
  • High value of leakage factor indicates a greater resistance of the semi-pervious strata to flow as compared to the resistance of strata itself.
  • Low head water lifts are suitable when the depth to water surface does not exceed 1.2 meter
  • Medium head lifts are suitable when the height of lift is within the range of 1.2 to 10 meters.
  • The height of high head lift is above the 10 meter.
  • Specific speed is often used as an index to the operating characteristics of pump. The part of rainfall, which enters the stream immediately after the rainfall, is called surface runoff.
  • That portion of rainfall which first leaches into the soil and moves laterally without joining the water table, to the stream is known as subsurface runoff.
  • Ratio of total channel length in the watershed to total watershed area is called drainage density.
  • The unit hydrograph method used to compute the direct runoff, is limited to the watershed area of about 5000 square kilometre.
  • The top 30 cm soil depth is very useful for the human being and wild life.
  • Accelerated erosion is in excess of geologic erosion Raindrop erosion is also known as splash erosion.
  • The soil may splash into the air up to a height of 50 to 70 cm depending upon size of raindrop.
  • Splash erosion is caused by impacting the raindrop.
  • Uniform removal of soil in the form of a thin layer by the flowing of water from a given width of slopping land is called sheet erosion.
  • Gully erosion is the advance and last stage of water erosion.
  • In other words gully erosion is the advance stage of rill erosion.
  • Glacial erosion is found where mean temperature is below zero degree Celsius. Photogenic erosion is the destruction of soil, caused by plants root system.
  • Zoogenic erosion is caused by animals.
  • Anthropogenic erosion is associated with the activities of human beings.
  • The annual soil loss from 0.05 to 0.5 mm depth or 0.5 to 5 cubic meters per hectare is count as week erosion.
  • In medium erosion the annual soil loss ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mm of soil depth or 5 to 15 cubic meters per hectare per year.
  • The range of soil loss in serious erosion varies from 1.5 to 5 mm of soil depth or 15 to 50 cubic meters per hectare per year.
  • The rates of extent of gully development are closely related to the amount and velocity of runoff water.
  • U-shape gullies are generally found in the alluvial plains.
  • V-shape gullies are often developed where the subsoil are tough to resist the rapid cutting of soil by runoff flow.
  • Drop spillways are used where head drop is 1.2 to 2.4 meter.
  • Chute spillways are used at the locations where head drop is fairly large ranging from 5 to 6 meter.
  • Wind erosion is the process of detachment, transportation and deposition of soil particles by the action of wind. The desert areas are the severely affected by wind erosion problem.
  • Soil erosion due to wind is mainly the result of creation of wind turbulence over the ground surface.
  • Suspension is the movement of very fine soil particles generally less than 0.1 mm in diameter
  • In saltation process, the size range of particles may be from 0.05 to 0.5 mm in diameter. Among the all type of soil movement the saltation is responsible for transporting the maximum amount of soil particles along ground surface by rolling and pushing action which ranges from 55 to 72% of total soil erosion.
  • The size of soil particles associated with surface creep are ranges from 0.5 to 1 or 2 mm in diameter.
  • The extent of total desert in India is about 20.7 Mha
  • Wind breaks and shelter belts are used for control the wind erosion. Erosivity is defined as the potential ability of rain to cause the erosion.
  • Erosivity depends upon the physical characteristics of rainfall include raindrop size distribution, kinetic energy and terminal velocity etc
  • Erodibility is the susceptibility of soil to get erosion.
  • In low rainfall regions the primary purpose of contour cultivation is to conserve the rain water into the soil as much as possible.
  • In humid regions the basic purpose of contour cultivation to reduce the soil erosion by retarding the overland flow.
  • Terracing is the engineering soil conservation practice, used to control the soil erosion in highly slopped areas.
  • Bench type terraces are generally constructed on the land of 6 to 33% slope.
  • Graded terrace is also known as channel type terrace.
  • Level terraces are constructed for conserving the moisture and controlling soil erosion.
  • Level terraces are also known as conservation terraces.
  • The conservation terraces are normally, found most suitable where rainfall is low and land slope is less than 6 percent.
  • Bunding is used for retaining the water, creating obstruction and thus to control erosion.
  • Bunding practices are found most suitable for the land having the slope ranges from 2 to 10 %.
  • Contour bunding is not technically feasible on the land slopes greater than 6 percent.
  • Graded bunding used in the area having rainfall greater than 700 mm per year.
  • Pipe culverts are used for very small drainage works.
  • Box culverts are preferred for the construction, especially in loose soil condition and for larger spans
  • Box culvert can be used for a single span of 3 meter for a double span of 6 meter width.
If it need any correction, please feel free to leave a comment.

 लोक सेवा आयोग

नेपाल कृषि सेवा, एगृ इञ्जिनियरिङ्ग समूह,

राजपत्राङ्कित तृतीय श्रेणी (प्राविधिक) पदको प्रतियोगितात्मक लिखित परीक्षा २०७७

पत्रः- द्वितीय

विषय:- Technical Subject

समय- ३ घण्टा

पूर्णाङ्रः- १००

निम्न प्रश्नहरूको उत्तर Section अनुसार छुटाछुट्टै उत्तरपुस्तिकामा लेख्नुपर्नेछ, अन्यथा उत्तरपुरितका रद्द हुनेछ ।


Section - A

1. What is land levelling? How is it done for wheat crop in Terai? [10 Marks]

2. Discuss briefly the design principles involved in the design of a strainer of tube wells.[10 Marks]


Section - B

3. Describe briefly the functioning of combine harvester. [5 Marks]

4. What is trans-planter? Name various types of trans-planter. [5 Marks]

5. Name different types of sprayers. Explain any most commonly used sprayers by small farmers in Nepal. [10 Marks]

6. Describe the commonly used tractors for field preparation in Nepal. Also list the advantages and disadvantages of each types of tractors. [10 Marks]


Section - C

7. How can proper postharvest handling reduce the losses of fruit and vegetables? Give a feasible suggestion to reduce the losses in the context of Nepal. [10 Marks]

8. Explain the functioning of seed processing equipment. Also list the advantages and disadvantages. [10 Marks]


Section - D

9. What are green roads? Explain the role of green roads in Nepal. [5 Marks]

10. What is Bio-engineering? Describe various types of Bio-engineering measures. [5 Marks]

11. Define farmstead. Describe the steps and factors that is needed to be considered planning a farmstead. [10 Marks]

12. Explain the different systems of poultry house with diagrams. Suggest suitable model to be adopted in Earthquake context and why? [10 Marks]


««The End»»



 Here are some important studying material (Syllabus, Books, Lecture's notes, Old question, Numerical solution etc) on various subjects of 3rd semester. These  materials would be very useful for student, researcher, co-worker related to the field of Agricultural Engineering. 

 

Soil And Water Conservation

Post Harvest Engineering

Irrigation And Drainage

Design of Structures

 Here are some important studying material (Syllabus, Books, Lecture's notes, Old question, Numerical solution etc) on various subjects of 4th semester. These  materials would be very useful for student, researcher, co-worker related to the field of Agricultural Engineering. 

 Hydraulics

 Surveying and Levelling

 Theory of Structures

 Numerical Methods

 Farm Machines

 

 

Here are some important studying material (Syllabus, Books, Lecture's notes, Old question, Numerical solution etc) on various subjects of 3rd semester. These  materials would be very useful for student, researcher, co-worker related to the field of Agricultural Engineering.




Here are some important studying material (Syllabus, Books, Lecture's notes, Old question, Numerical solution etc) on various subjects of 5th semester. These  materials would be very useful for student, researcher, co-worker related to the field of Agricultural Engineering.