November 2017

In Tribhuvan University, IOE's syllabus Civil Engineering student and Agricultural Engineering student are recommended for survey camping in third year first part.
Diploma civil engineering student & Bachelor civil engineering student under different university like Kathmandu University, Pokhara university, Purwanchal University etc in Nepal and different technical board like CTEVT conduct survey camping for their civil engineering student according to their curriculum.

Now a day the knowledge of survey camping is basic essential for an Engineer. For Engineering design, layout preparation, Estimation, map preparation etc as a whole, during any structure construction basic thing comes in the task is survey. For the further utilization of the survey camping (out of field), the skill on different software such as AutoCAD, Civil 3D, Maya, DTM software, Excel etc are required.

Background, history and essentialities of survey
Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago). It dates back to antiquity, Heron, a Greek who lived in Alexandria in about the first century AD, provided the first serious account of surveying techniques. From then different surveying techniques was developed to use in measuring up and setting out the relative positions of natural and man-made features. It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. The science of surveying has been developing since the initial stage of human civilization according to their requirements. The art of surveying preparation of maps has been practiced from the ancient times and the further advanced until present. In the absence of the map, it is impossible to layout the alignments of road, canals tunnels, transmission power line and microwave or television relaying towers and so on. Detailed map of the sites of engineering projects are necessary for the precision establishment of sophisticated instruments. Surveying is the first step for the execution of any project. As the success of any engineering is based upon the accurate and complete survey work, an engineer must therefore be thoroughly familiar with the principle and different methods of surveying and mapping.

As per American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), Surveying is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points or details by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevationIt also includes the art of establishing points by pre-determined angular and linear measurements.

Thus, surveying is an art and science of determining the relative position of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by direct and indirect methods of angular and linear measurements and representation of these information either graphically or numerically.
In surveying, all measurements of lengths are horizontal, or elsewhere are subsequently reduced to horizontal distances. The objective of survey is to prepare plan or map so that it may represent the area on the horizontal plane. A plan or map is the horizontal projection of an area and shows only horizontal distances of the points. Vertical distances between the points are, however, shown by contour lines, hachure or some other methods.

The results of surveys are used to map the earth, prepare navigational charts, establish property boundaries, develop data of land used and natural resource information etc. Further survey maintains highways, railroads, buildings, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams and many more. Surveying is the main roots for the execution of any civil/Agricultural engineering projects. Before any civil/Agricultural engineering project, surveying is required for estimate, quality control and is used for calculation of payment after a project is finished.

For water supply-sanitary system, irrigation system, highway designing, the relative altitudes are required, which is ascertained by the process of leveling. The details of the enclosed area and the ground nature can also be portrayed in the combined form of a topographic map. Not only this, the whole land can be surveyed as different areas and can be plotted into a single map, the main thing is not to violate the basic survey principles viz. working from whole to part, consistency in work, accuracy required according to scale and independent check. As a basic part of these principles, horizontal and vertical controls are fixed prior to the work of detailing, while surveying large areas. These necessities are also fulfilled while fixing intersection points for the primary survey on road. For the survey on river, especially for hydraulic structure site, the triangulation method is carried over for horizontal control and fixing control station for further references. In addition, for vertical control fly leveling is run to form closed circuit.

The main objectives of surveying courses allocated for Agricultural engineering students like us, is to promote the basic knowledge of different surveying techniques relevant to Agricultural /civil engineering works in the professional practice. So, the completion of all surveying courses including ten-day survey camp work gave us better enhancement to use all surveying technique covered in course.

Writing a good camping report on a survey camping is also taken as the basic but challenging task for a good surveyor. That report should contain all about the survey, its theory, data, maps, and graph, figures.  For writing a good report you should review a previous report and you may develop an idea to write a report.

Here we have provided a complete survey camping report in the pdf format below, you can download and reviewed it.
And furthermore, here are many excel sheet for data entry, calculation process. These may be also useful for you, you can download and use these.

"This report is based on the work we did on Survey Camp 2074, organized by Survey
Instruction Committee, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Purwanchal Campus for 2071-BAG batch as per syllabus of Bachelor in Agricultural Engineering, TU and includes summary of Surveying and its detail (methodology and calculation).
The surveying work was done in Sapta Rangi Park and Sardu River Dharan for 10 working days, starting from 21st Baishakh and ending on 30th Baishakh with field work scheduled from 7 am to 6 pm on each day. Topographic surveying and Rural road alignment was done in Sapta Rangi Park . while head work survey and canal alignment survey was done in Sardu river.
This camp has helped us to have experience, confidence and knowledge on working real site. Also this camp made us able to work on team. "

Project TitleSurvey Camp 2074

Location:                                Sapta Rangi Park and Sardu River Dharan, Sunsari
Duration:                                 21st Baishakh to 30th Baishakh 2074
Working Time:                         6 am to 6 pm
Head of Department: Er. Jawed Alam
 Group:                                   Group - Bc
Survey Instruction Committee
Coordinator:                 Er. Jawed Alam

Field Instructors:         Er. Narendra Dangi

                                    Er. Suman Thapa
                                    Er, Anju Udas
Er. TaraKanta Chaudhary
Er. Durga Dhan Rai
Er. Uttam Kuamar Shrestha

LAB BOY:                              Mr. Prakash Giri
·         Padam Prasad Paudel(071/BAG/27)
·         Rishi Kumar Chaudhary(071/BAG/32)
·         Sanjay Kumar Yadav(071/BAG/37)
·         Seelam Ishar(071/BAG/42)
·         Tsering Sherpa(071/BAG/47)
                                                Department of Civil/Agricultural Engineering
                                                Purwanchal campus, Dharan

"About this survey camping"
The survey camp of 2017 was organized by Purwanchal Campus for the fifth semester Agricultural Engineering students, 47 in number. The duration of the camp was 10 days from 04/05/2017 to 13/05/2017 . The places in and around the Saptarangi Park, Dharan & Sardu River, Dharan were chosen for surveying. The report reflects the methodology, observations, calculations, methods of adjustment of error, main problem faces during work and their solution, results of all calculations and their assessments with some comments is presented in a concise form made by the students in the Camp with the corresponding drawings. The large portion is of course covered with elements of topographic surveying, and then those of river site survey and canal alignment survey follows it. The report is prepared with great efforts and dedications of the students who have devoted their immense from the very first time of fieldwork till today. The students are always learning for knowledge and promotions. Therefore, we feel that this report deserves the excuses and tolerances from the readers for any errors or blunders present, despite the best efforts. The work done during the camp duration can be categorized into three main parts:
1.       Topographical survey
2.       Rural road alignment survey
3.       Head work survey
4.       Canal alignment survey


Excell data layout sheet
Topographical survey and Rural road alignment survey
·         table-10.xlsx 
·         table-201.xlsx 
·         table101.xlsx 

Head work and Canal alignment survey

ME 453

Lecture       : 1                                                                                                            Year: I
Practical    : 3                                                                                                            Part: I/II

Course Objective:          The subject aims at imparting knowledge and skill components in the field of basic workshop technology. It deals with different hand and machine tools required for manufacturing simple metal components and articles.
After the completion of the course, the student shall be able to
1.       Practice workshop safety rules effectively
2.       Acquire knowledge and use simple hand tools
3.       Acquire knowledge and use simple measuring and gauging instruments
4.       Operate simple drilling machines for producing small holes
5.       Operate various machine tools for producing simple metal components and articles
6.       Acquire knowledge and practice on foundry, forging and welding

1.       General safety Considerations                                                                                    (2 hours)
1.1.        Bench Tools                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
1.2.        Machinist’s Hammers
1.3.        Screw Drivers
1.4.        Punches
1.5.        Chisels
1.6.        Scrapers
1.7.        Scribers
1.8.        Files
1.9.        Pliers and Cutters
1.10.     Wrenches
1.11.     Hacksaw
1.12.     Bench Vise
1.13.     Hand drill
1.14.     Taps and Dies
1.15.     Hand Shears
1.16.     Rules, Tapes and Squares
1.17.     Soldering Iron
1.18.     Rivets

2.       Hand Working Operations                                                                                          (1 hours)
2.1.        Sawing
2.2.        Filing
2.3.        Threading
2.4.        Scribing
2.5.        Shearing
2.6.        Soldering
2.7.        Riveting

3.       Measuring and Gauging                                                                                                (1hours)        
3.1.        Introduction
3.2                Semi – Precision Tools – Calipers, depth Gauge, Feeler Gauge
3.3          Precision Tools – Micrometers, Vernier Calipers, Vernier Height Gauge, Telescopic Gauge, Hole Gauge, Bevel Protractor, Dial Indicator, Gauge Blocks and Surface Plate

4.       Drills and Drilling Processes                                                                                       (1 hours)
4.1                Introduction
4.2                Types of Drill Presses
4.3                Work Holding Devices and Accessories
4.4                Cutting Tools
4.5                Geometry of Drill Bits
4.6                Grinding of Drill Bits
4.7                Operations – Drilling, Counter - boring, Counter - sinking, Reaming, Honning, Lapping
4.8                Cutting Speeds
4.9                Drilling Safety

5.       Machine Tools                                                                                                                 (4 hours)
5.1.     General Safety Considerations
5.2                Engine Lathes
5.2.1           Introduction
5.2.2           Physical Construction
5.2.3           Types of Lathe
5.2.4           Lathe Operations – Facing, Turning, Threading
5.3                Shapers
5.3.1           Introduction
5.3.2           Types of Shapers
5.3.3           Physical Construction
5.3.4           General Applications
5.4                Milling Machines
5.4.1           Introduction
5.4.2           Types of Milling Machines
5.4.3           Physical Construction
5.4.4           Milling Cutters – Plain, Side, Angle, End, Form
5.4.5           Milling Operations – Plain, Side, Angular, Gang, End, Form, Keyway
5.4.6           Work Holding Devices
5.4.7           Cutter Holding Devices
5.5                Grinding Machines
5.5.1           Abrasives, Bonds, Grinding Wheels
5.5.2           Rough Grinders – Portable Grinders, Bench Grinders, Swing Frame Grinders, Abrasive Belt Grinders
5.5.3           Precision Grinders – Cylindrical Grinders, Surface Grinders

6.       Material Properties                                                                                                        (1 hours)
6.1.        Tool materials – Low, medium and high carbon steels; Hot and cold rolled steels; Alloy steels; Carbide and Ceramic materials
6.2.        Heat treating methods for steels – Annealing, Tempering, Normalizing, Hardening and Quenching
6.3.     Non – ferrous metals – Brass, Bronze, Aluminum – Comparative Properties

7.       Sheet Metal Works                                                                                                         (1 hours)
7.1.        Introduction
7.2.        Sheet Metal Tools
7.3.        Marking and Layout
7.4.        Operations – Bending, Cutting, Rolling

8.       Foundry Practice                                                                                                            (1 hours)
8.1.        Introduction
8.2.        Pattern Making
8.3.        Foundry Tools
8.4.        Core Making
8.5.        Melting Furnace – Cupola
8.6.        Sand Casting Process

9.       Forging Practice                                                                                                             (1 hours)
9.1.        Introduction
9.2.        Forging Tools
9.3.        Operations – Upsetting, Drawing, Cutting, Bending, Punching
9.4.        Forging Presses and Hammers
9.5.        Advantages and Limitations

10.    Metal Joining                                                                                                                   (2 hours)
10.1       Safety Considerations
10.2       Introduction
10.3       Soldering
10.4       Brazing
10.5             Welding – Gas Welding, Arc Welding, Resistance Welding, Tungsten Inert  Gas Welding (TIG), Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG)

Workshop Practice: 3 hours/week; 15 weeks

1.       Bench Tools and hand operations: Measuring, Marking, Layout, Cutting, Filling, Drilling, Tapping, Assembly
2.       Bench Tools and hand operations: (Contd.)
3.       Drilling machines
4.       Measuring and Gauging Instruments
5.       Engine lathe: Basic operations such as Plain turning, facing, cutting off, knurling.
6.       Engine lathe: Taper turning, drilling and boring
7.       Basic Shaper Operations
8.       Milling Machines
9.       Grinding Machines
10.    Sheet Metal works
11.    Foundry Practice
12.    Forging Practice
13.    Electric Arc Welding
14.    Gas Welding

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A text book of Workshop Technology - R. S. Khurmi and J. K. Gupta - S. Chand and Company Ltd, New Delhi. INDIA