Lecture     :   3                                                                                              Year   :   IV
Tutorial    :   1                                                                                              Part    :   I      
Practical   :   1.5                                                                                             
Course Objective:
The primary objective of this course is to introduce bio-energy sources and their conversion methods used for the fulfillment of requirement of energy in Agricultural Engineering activities in rural areas. Secondly the course emphasizes in design and development of such rural technologies that converts rural bio-energy sources into usable form and supply it to operate tools, equipments and machineries used in agricultural works.
1.       Bio-mass Energy                                                                                          [4 hours]
1.1.  Introduction to bio-mass energy
1.2. Characteristics of Bio-energy Resource         
1.3.  Classification of Bio-energy Resource
1.3.1.   Woody Biomass, Noon-woody, Solid bio-mass
1.3.2.   Animal and Human Bio-Wastes, Bio-Degradable Materials, Animal and Human Energy                                                            
1.4.  Bio-energy Availability and Estimation:
1.4.1.   Estimation of Wood fuel Availability
1.4.2.   Estimation of Agricultural residues
1.4.3.   Estimation of Animal and human Bio-wastes
1.4.4.   Estimation and Availability of Animal and Human Energy
2.       Bio-mass Energy Conversion                                                                     [5 hours]
2.1.  Physical Conversion- Drying, Pulverization, densification
2.2.  Chemical Conversion- Acid Hydrolysis, fermentation, Distillation
2.3.  Bio-chemical Conversion- Anaerobic Digestion, Ethanol-Fermentation,
2.3.1.  Vermin-composting
2.4.  Thermo-chemical Conversion - Combustion, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Liquefaction
3.       Wood Energy Technology                                                                          [8 hours]
3.1.  Properties of fuel Wood
3.1.1.   Physical Properties
3.1.2.   Chemical Properties
3.1.3.   Thermal Properties and Thermal behavior of fuel wood
3.2.  Wood Energy Conversion Process:
3.2.1.   Thermo- chemical conversion pathways
3.2.2.   Thermal behavior of fuel wood-heat release and moisture content            
3.2.3.   Heat release rate and air flow, heat releases rate and feed rate
3.3.  Wood stove
3.3.1.   Parameters controlling performance of wood stove
3.3.2.   Design consideration for fuel electric cook stoves
3.3.3.   Performance of improve cook stove program in Nepal
4.       Bio- gas Technology                                                                                     [8 hours]
4.1.  Anaerobic digestion process
4.1.1.   Bio- chemical process in anaerobic digestion
4.1.2.   Stage of anaerobic digestion process
4.1.3.   Factors affecting microbial activities
4.1.4.   Optimal environment or anaerobic digestion
4.2.  Consideration in bio-gas plant design
4.2.1.   Types of anaerobic digestion
4.2.2.   Site selection
4.2.3.   Size of bio-gas plant
4.2.4.   Construction of bio-gas plant.
4.3.  Bio-gas plants for cold climate                                                                          
4.3.1.   Treatment of bio-gas plants for cold climate
4.3.2.   High altitude bio-gas reactor
4.3.3.   Integrated bio-gas systems
5.       Bio-mass Gasification Technology                                                             [8 hours]
5.1.  Principle of Bio-mass gasification
5.1.1.   Process and pathway
5.1.2.   Operating parameters
5.1.3.   Effects of feedstock on gasification process
5.1.4.   Constituents of producer gas
5.2.  Types of bio-mass gasification
5.2.1.   Updraft gas producer
5.2.2.   Downdraft gas producer
5.2.3.   Cross flow gas producer
5.2.4.   Twin fire gas producer
5.2.5.   Comparison of performance of gasifiers
5.3.  Producer gas drive engine
5.3.1.   Conditioning gas producer
5.3.2.   Conversion of gasoline and diesel engine to produce gas
5.3.3.   Performance of gasifiers engine system
6.       Bio-diesel                                                                                                      [8 hours]
6.1.  Oil producing plant of Nepal
6.2.  Chemical properties of vegetable oils
6.3.  Oil extraction and processing technology
6.3.1.   Mechanical extraction
6.3.2.   Moisture removal
6.3.3.   Solvent extraction
6.3.4.   Oil refinement techniques
6.4.  Application of bio-diesel
6.4.1.   Forms of bio-diesels
6.4.2.   Problem due to thermal instability
6.4.3.   Application of IC engines
6.4.4.   Power speed relationship of IC engines with bio-diesel
7.       Animals and Human Energy                                                                      [4 hours]
7.1.  Characteristics of animal and human energy
7.1.1.   Contribution of animal and human energy
7.1.2.   Estimation of animal and human energy
7.2.  Bio-mechanics of animal and human energy conversion
7.2.1.   Bio-mechanics of animal power harnessing system
7.2.2.   Bio-mechanics of human power harnessing

1.       Evaluation of energy value of wood fuel for different plant species
2.       Comparison of energy values of fuel wood, agriculture residues, bio-briquettes and other bio-fuels
3.       Comparison of performance of different types of fuel stoves
4.       Vegetable oil extraction by solvent distillation process
5.       Evaluation of physic-chemical properties of bio-diesel
6.       Design calculation for cattle dung based bio-gas reactor
7.       Biomass gasification design calculation

1.       K. M. Mittal. Biomass Systems: Principle and Applications. New Age International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (Latest Edition)
2.       B. T. Nijaguna. Biogas Technology. New Age International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (Latest Edition)
3.       Journals and Publications of American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) on Biogas Technology
4.       FAO Journals on Biomass Combustion Technologies.
5.       FAO Journals on Energy Conversion and Renewable Energy for Greenhouse Heating
6.         ASTM and ISI Standards
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters in the Syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below.
Marks Distribution*
*There may be minor variation in marks distribution.
Source:-Department of Agricultural Engineering

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