HYDRAULICS CE 555
Lecture : 4 Year : II
Tutorial :
2 Part
: II
Practical :
1
Course
Objective:
The knowledge of hydraulics is essential to the design of many hydraulic
structures. The knowledge of hydraulic is very important to the students and
engineers in the field of hydraulic engineering . Hence, this course has been
designed to provide basic knowledge of hydraulics to the students of civil
engineering so that it would be helpful them to understand the basic phenomena
of this science. This course shall be considered as an introduction: common for
all civil engineering faculties of Tribhuvan University in the second year
second part of undergraduate.
1.
Pipe
flow (9
hours)
1.1
Introduction
to pipe flow, distinguish between pipe and open channel flow.
Reynolds
experiment and flow based on Reynolds’s number
1.2
Laminar flow
(Steady uniform incompressible flow in a circular pipe, shear stress, and
velocity distribution )
1.3
Head loss,
Hagen Poisseuille equation.
1.4
Turbulent
flow. Shear stress development, Prandtl’s mixing length theory, velocity Distribution, DarcyWeisbach equation,
Nikuradse’s experiments.
1.5
Resistance
for commercial pipes, variation of friction factor with Reynold number,
ColebrookWhite equation, Moody’s diagram
1.6
Minor head
losses in pipes (losses in sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, Exit loss,
entry loss, losses in bends and losses due to different fittings).
1.7
HGL and TEL
lines for several cases
2.
Simple
pipe flow problems and solution (5 hours)
2.1
Three types
of simple pipe flow problems and their solution
2.2
Pipe is
series, Dupuit equation. Concept of equivalent pipe length
2.3
Pipe in
parallel. Different kind of problems and their solution
2.4
Siphons and
its application
2.5
Computer
programme coding for simple problems
3.
Three
reservoirs problem and Pipe networks (6
hours)
3.1
Introduction to three reservoir problems
3.2
Solution procedures for possible different cases.
3.3
Introduction
to pipe network problems and application
3.4
HardyCross
method of solving of pipe networks problems
3.5
Solution
procedure by HardyCross method for single and double loops of pipe networks with examples
3.6
Computer
programme coding for simple problems
4.
Unsteady
flow in pipes (5
hours)
4.1
Basic
equations for unsteady flow: celerity, Euler’s Equation and continuity
equation.
4.2
water hammer
and its effects
4.3
Propagation
of elastic wave in rigid and elastic pipe
4.4
Pressure
variation due to gradual and sudden closure of pipe. Pressure variation at
given point due to sudden closure of
pipe.
4.5
Brief
information about the relief devices against water hammer effects as surge
tanks.
5.
Basics
of Open channel flow
(3 hours)
5.1
Introduction to open channel flow and its
practical application, differences
between open and pipe flows.
5.2
Classification
(natural and artificial channel, prismatic and nonprismatic channel, rigid boundary and mobile boundary
channel).
5.3
Geometric properties (depth of flow, area of
flow, top width, wetted
perimeter, hydraulic radius,
hydraulic depth, bed or longitudinal slope, hydraulic slope, energy slope)
5.4
Classification
of open channel flow (Steady unsteady; uniform nonuniform; laminar turbulent; subcritical, super critical,
critical and super critical flow; gradually varied, rapidly varied and
spatially varied flow)
6.
Uniform
flow in open channel (7 hours)
6.1
Condition of
uniform flow, expression for the shear stress on the boundary of channel
6.2
Flow
resistance equations. DarcyWeisbach, Chezy and Manning equations and
their relationship.
6.3
Determination
and factors affecting manning’s roughness coefficient
6.4
Velocity
profile for laminar and turbulent flow, velocity distribution
6.5
Velocity
distribution coefficients and their application
6.6
Conveyance,
section factor, normal depth and hydraulic exponent for uniform flow
computation
6.7
Problems of
uniform flow computation
6.8
Best
Hydraulic channel sections and determination of section dimensions
(rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal
and circular section)
6.9
Computer
programme coding for simple problems
7.
Energy
and Momentum Principles in Open channel flow (11
hours)
7.1
Energy
principle, specific energy, specific energy curve, criteria for critical flow
7.2
Critical depth
computations for all kind of channel sections (prismatic as well as non prismatic) and criteria for critical state of
flow.
7.3
Discharge
depth relationship
7.4
Application
of energy principle and concepts of critical depth concepts (channel width reduction, rise in channel bed, venture flume
and broad crested weir)
7.5
Momentum
principle, specific force, specific force curve, criteria for critical state of
flow, conjugate depth.
7.6
Computer
programme coding for simple problems
8.
Nonuniform
gradually varied flow (GVF) (6
hours)
8.1
Introduction
to GVF. Basic assumptions, Dynamic equation and its physical meaning
8.2
Characteristics
bed slopes ( mild, critical, steep, horizontal and adverse).
8.3
Characteristics
and analysis of flow profiles
8.4
Computation
of GVF in prismatic channels by (graphical integration, direct integration
and direct step and standard step
methods)
8.5
Computer
programme coding for simple problems
9.
Nonuniform
rapidly varied flow (RVF) (4
hours)
9.1
Characteristics
of RVF. Hydraulic jump as an energy dissipater
9.2
Hydraulic
jump in a horizontal rectangular channel. Relationship between hydraulic
jump variables (conjugate depth, height
of the jump, efficiency jump, length of the jump)
9.3
Energy loss
in jump
9.4
Classification
of the jump based on the tail water level and Froude number
9.5
Practical
application of jump at spillway toe, falls etc.
9.6
computer
programme coding for simple problems
10.
Flow
in mobile boundary channel (4
hours)
10.1
Introduction to rigid and mobile boundary
channel
10.2
Rigid boundary channel and its design principle
(minimum permissible velocity approach).
10.3
Definition
of alluvial channel. Shear stress distribution on the channel boundary.
10.4
Incipient
motion condition
10.5
Design of
MBC by three approaches (the permissible velocity, tractive force and regime
theory approaches)
10.6
Introduction
to Shied diagram and its application for designing MBC
10.7
Formation of
river beds based on the shear stress.
References:
1.
Ven Te Chow
“Open channel hydraulic” McGrawHill book company limited, 1973
2.
K G Ranga
Raju “Flow through open channel” Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited,
New Delhi, Second Edition,1993.
3.
D.S. Kumar “Fluid
Mechanics and Fluid power Engineering” S.K. Kataria and Sons, sixth edition,
2005
4.
K. L. Kumar
“Engineering Fluid Mechanics” Eurasia Publishing house (P) Ltd. Ram Nagar New
Delhi, 2000.
5.
S
Ramamrutham “Hydraulics fluid mechanics and
fluid machines”,. Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Ltd. New Delhi Seventh
Edition 2006
Practical:
The
following exercises will be performed in this course. These are:
1.
Head
loss in Pipe
2.
Determination
of manning's coefficient for different surfaces.
3.
Flow
through open sluice gate
4.
Hump
and constricted flow analysis
5.
Hydraulic
jump analysis
Tutorials:
1. Pipe flow (3 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation.
There will be tutorial for each subsection
2. Simple pipe flow problem and solution (2 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation.
3. Three reservoir problems and pipe networks (4 hours)
Practical examples, and numerical examples.
Use of computer programme(studied in I/I) for solving exercises
4. Unsteady flow in pipes (3 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation.
There will be tutorial for each subsection
5. Basics of open channel flow (1 hours)
6. Uniform Flow (3 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation. There will be tutorial for each subsection
Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
7. Energy and momentum principles in open channel flow (4hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation
There will be tutorial for each subsection
Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
8. Nonuniform Gradually varied flow (4 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation
Drawings for flow profiles
There will be tutorial for each subsection
Use of computer programme (studied in I/I) to solve some problems
9. Nonuniform Rapidly Varied flow (2 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation
There will be tutorial for each subsection
10. Flow in mobile boundary channel (2 hours)
Practical examples, numerical examples and derivation
Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below
Chapters

Hours

Marks
distribution*

1

9

8

2

5

8

3

6

10

4

5

8

5

3

4

6

7

10

7

11

12

8

6

8

9

4

6

10

4

6

Total

60

80

*There may
be minor variation in marks distribution
well done bro!
ReplyDeleteThanks visit, I have required your help also.
DeleteThank you
ReplyDeleteWelcome
DeleteGood padam
ReplyDeleteThank you.. Keep being touch with us.
Delete