Lecture        :   3                                                                                              Year   :   II
Tutorial        :   0                                                                                              Part    :   II
Practical      :   4

Course Objective:
In order to develop the sound knowledge in the surveying field of the students related to BE Agri. Engineering, this course has been designed.
1.              Introduction                                                                                            (2 hours)
1.1          History of surveying
1.2          Classification of surveying
1.3          Principles used in surveying

2.              Survey measurements, field and office work                                   (4 hours)
2.1          Introduction, units and system of measurements, Types of measurements, Significant figures, Rounding of numbers, Scales
2.2          Accuracy and precision
2.3          Errors in measurements, sources of errors and types of errors
2.4          General Planning and Design of Survey
2.4.1     Specification
2.4.2      Collection of existing map, documents, slides and control points
2.4.3     Selection of equipments and survey procedure, selection of computational procedures and method of data presentation
2.5          Care and handling of instruments, Adjustment of the instruments, Recording of field notes, Note Books, Data Recording, Other media for data recording, cross checking, Computational etc.

3.              Linear Distance Measurements                                                           (2 hours)
3.1          Distance by Pacing, Taping, Triangulation, Tacheometry, EDM, Total Station, GPS
3.2          Instruments and Methods of Measurements
3.3          Tape correction (Standardization, Tension, Temperature, Sag, Slope)
3.4          Principle of Electronic Distance Measurement

4.              Vertical Distance Measurements: Leveling                                       (8 hours)
4.1          Definition, Requirements of vertical measurements            , Principles of leveling (Direct/ Spirit leveling, Trigonometric Leveling, Barometric leveling)
4.2          Leveling Instruments, Levels (Dumpy, Tilting, Auto, Digital), Leveling staves, Foot plates, Rod levels
4.3          Temporary and Permanent adjustment of level (Two peg test and collimation correction)
4.4          Booking and calculation of reduced level (HI method, Rise/Fall method)
4.5          Classification of leveling
4.5.1         Fly leveling
4.5.2         Profile leveling
4.5.3         Cross sectioning
4.5.4         Reciprocal leveling
4.6          Curvature and refraction
4.7          Errors, Adjustment of level circuit
4.8          Introduction of grades or slopes in leveling and setting out of grade stakes as per grade elevation
4.9          Field problems

5.              Angles and Directions Measurements                                               (6 hours)
5.1          Location of points, Meridians, True meridian, Magnetic meridian, Grid meridian, Angles and directions, Bearings, Interior angles, Deflection angles, Angle to the right
5.2          Methods of determining angles and directions
5.3          Magnetic compass (Prismatic, Surveyor’s and other analogue and digitized compass)
5.4          Magnetic declination, Local attraction, detection and elimination of local attraction
5.5          Use of compass
5.6          Theodolites, Level tubes, Telescope, Graduated circle, Geometry of the theodolites, Different types of theodolites
5.7          Methods of measuring horizontal angles by using different types of theodolites
5.8          Measurement of vertical and zenithal angles.
5.9          Laying of horizontal angles
5.10   Errors and corrections
5.11   Field Problems

6.              Traverse                                                                                                   (8 hours)
6.1          Introduction, Traverse party, Equipment for traverse party, Purpose of traverse, Types of traverse and methods of traversing
6.2          Field works for traversing, traverse field notes
6.3          Traverse computation for closed traverse and link (closed loop) traverse
6.3.1     Reduction of reading to angles and balancing of angles
6.3.2     Computation of bearing and adjustment of bearing
6.3.3     Computation of latitude and departure
6.3.4     Balancing of consecutive coordinates
6.3.5     Computation of independent coordinates and plotting of traverse
6.4          Methods of determining area: Area by triangles, coordinates, double meridian distances and latitudes, Simpson’s one third rule, Trapezoidal rule
6.5          Traverse omitted measurements
6.6          Field problems

7.              Stadia and Tacheometry                                                                       (4 hours)
7.1          Definition, Principle of stadia tachoemetry
7.2          System of tacheometric measurements
7.3          Principles of stadia system, Distance and Elevation for inclined sight with staff vertical, Determination of multiplying constant and additive constant, Introduction of subtense bar and self reducing tacheometer
7.4          Accuracy and precision of tacheometric survey
7.5          Field problems

8.              Topographic Survey                                                                               (4 hours)
8.1          Introduction, methods of topographic survey, control for topographic survey
8.2          Contours, Characteristics of contours, Direct and Indirect method for locating contours
8.3          Interpolation of contours
8.4          Basic field methods for locating topographic details

9.              Triangulation and Trilateration: Introduction                                     (1 hour)
10.          Analytical Intersection and Resection                                                 (2 hours)
11.          Introduction of simple circular curve                                                    (1 hour)
12.          Introduction to Global Positioning System (GPS)                             (2 hours)
12.1      Principles of GPS, Components of GPS, accuracy and errors
12.2      Differential GPS, GPS application, Absolute GPS

13.         Aerial Photogrammetry: Introduction, application and limitation     (1 hour)

1.             Horizontal distance measurement in plane and sloping ground    
2.             Two peg test and fly leveling                                                
3.             Profile and cross sectioning                                                  
4.             Traversing by using prismatic compass                                               
5.             Traversing using theodolite                                                  
6.             Traverse computation and plotting                                                     
7.             Tacheometric detailing for topographic survey                                
8.             Plotting of topographic map/parcellary map preparation                               
9.             Demonstration of GIS software and GPS unit     
1.       A Banister and S Raymond - Surveying- English Language Book Society (ELBS), Latest Edition
2.       Punmia B.C. - Surveying, Khanna Publication, New Delhi - Latest Edition
3.       R. Agor – Surveying and Levelling
4.       Basak N N – Surveying and Levelling
5.       Duggal S K – Surveying
6.       Roy S K – Surveying
7.       Saikia M D – Surveying

Evaluation Scheme:
The questions will cover all the chapters of the syllabus. The evaluation scheme will be as indicated in the table below:
Marks distribution*

*There may be minor variation in marks distribution
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