Application procedure, entrance preparation guide, book, syllabus, program and collage selection guide to admit in MSC program offered by IOE TU Nepal


Institute of Engineering (IOE) of Tribhuvan University, Nepal Published the notice for the MSC entrance examination 2078. Find more details about the notice through the IOE 's website . Here we have summarized the notice and entrance guide for candidate who graduated with bachelor of Agricultural Engineering.


Entrance fee: NRS 2,000/-

Detailed Schedule for Entrance Examination of Masters Programs-2078

Time and Date for Online Application: From 10 AM, 3 Mangsir 2078 (19th November 2021) to 3 PM, 17th Mangsir 2078 (3rd December 2021)
Admit card can be downloaded from: 23rd Mangsir 2078 (9th December 2021) from website:
Entrance Examination will be held at ICTC, IOF, Pulchowk: From 26th Mangsir 2078 (12nd December 2021)
Publication of Result: 2nd Poush 2078 (17th December 2021)

Master program for graduate of Agricultural Engineering in IOE, TU

The graduate of Agricultural Engineering or equivalent can admit in two constituent campus of IOE in following specific master programs

A. Pulchowk Campus (

In different 12 programs offered by different departments. as shown in following table I. 

B. Purwanchal campus (

Land and water Engineering or in Sanitation Engineering offered by the department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering.

There will be total intake of 20 in each programs, among which 5 will be regular, 1 for IOE reserved, 6 for full fee and 8 for sponsored. But one seat in regular and one seat in full fee category are reserved for female candidate in each program. If there is no application for the IOE reserved or sponsored then these seat will be fulfilled as full fee category. And one fourth quota has been reserved for foreign students in each programs.

Table-I: MSc programs, Entrance streams and offering departments and campuses.



Entrance stream

Offered by

A. Pulchowk Campus, Lalitpur


Water Resources Engineering


Department of Civil Engineering


Environmental Engineering



Hydropower Engineering



Construction Management



Disaster Risk Management



Renewable Energy Engineering


Department of Mechanical Engineering


Energy Systems Planning and Management



Technology and Innovation Management



Climate Change and Development


Department of Science and Humanities


Material Science and Engineering



Applied Mathematics



Energy for Sustainable Social Development


Department of Architecture

B. Purwanchal Campus, Dharan


Land and water Engineering


Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering


Sanitation Engineering


Mode of Entrance Examination

The candidate should appear in one of the streams (listed in Table-II) of entrance examination and qualify for admission in relevant Master Program at IOE.

Table-II: Entrance Streams and Code

S. No.

Entrance Stream

Entrance Code


Planning and Architecture



Civil & Agriculture Engineering



Electrical Engineering



Electronics & Computer Engineering



Mechanical and Industrial Engineering



Applied Science 



Geomatics Engineering  



Applied Mathematics



Ø  Entrance examination will be of Computer Based Multiple Choice Type of 2 hours duration consisting of two sections. Section- A consists of 45 questions for 50 marks. While Section-B consists of stream specialized course with 50 numbers of questions of 1 mark each.

Ø  The Candidates have to secure minimum marks as prescribed by the Faculty Board of IOE.

Ø  All questions will be in English.

There will be 10% negative marking for wrong answer. Non programmable calculators are permitted. Exchange of calculators is strictly prohibited. Candidates have to bring their own calculators in the exam hall.

Selection procedure

The entrance examination board of IOE will publish the list of the successful candidates in the entrance examination notice board and via the website whereas the admission committee of constituent campuse will take care of admission procedure.

  • A Candidate who has passed the relevant bachelor degree and fulfills the program entry requirements will be selected for the admission on the basis of merit list based on the score of the entrance examination.
  • Admission committees of respective campuses will publish the list of admission as per its schedule. The candidates should contact the campus admission committee. All the selected candidates should follow the schedule published by the committee. Vacant seats due to the failure of any candidate to enroll in the prescribed time will be filled by admitting candidates from the consequent next list.


  • The successful candidate should pay required fee and complete the procedures within the time prescribed by the admission committee of the campuses. Candidates failing to do so will lose the opportunity to get the admission. The following documents should be presented at the time of admission:
    • Original and attested copies of transcripts of all academic records from SLC onwards to the latest approved degree (bachelor/masters).
    • Original copies of migration and provisional certificates, if applicable.
    • Original copy of Nepali citizenship certificate, passport for foreign students
  • In case of discrepancy on verification of the original certificates, or in case of inclusion of the candidate's name in the admission list by mistake of any kind, admission of such a candidate will be cancelled even after his/her formal admission.
  • To be eligible for master's entrance application, the candidate must have passed bachelor degree in relevant subjects with at least second division.

Books for entrance preparation:

  1. Objective book MSC entrance  Volume I & II for CIVIL and Agricultural Engineering (CA) written by Er. Hari Ram Pyakurel & Er. Laxman Lamsal
  2. Reference books from bachelor books


The M.Sc. Entrance examination will be “Computer Based Examination” of two hours duration, consisting of two sections. Section- A consists of 45 questions for 50 marks. While Section-B consists of stream specialized course with 50 questions of 1 mark each. Each question will be of objective type with multiple choice answers and negative marking for each wrong answer is 10%.



The depth of subject matter in this section shall be similar to Bachelor Level.


1.1.1 Communication English  [10]

          1. Critical Reasoning                                                                                                               [6]

Critical reasoning section aims to test the candidate's comprehension of the interpretative abilities in English as a language of business and communication. Critical reasoning questions measure your ability to read with understanding, insight and discrimination. These questions explore your ability to analyze a written passage from several perspectives, including your ability to recognize explicitly stated elements as well as underlying statements and their implications. This section measures reading comprehension and critical reasoning skills in multiple-choice format.

The critical reasoning section measures your ability to

(a)      Analyze and evaluate a written text and synthesize information obtained from it.

(b)      Analyze relationships among component parts of sentences.

      Text Completion/Sentence equivalence:     [2x1=2]

      Reading Passages:  [2x2=4]

            2. Error Analysis                                                                                                            [2x1=2]

         This section measures your ability to

      Write sentences without any error

      Write proposals, reports, seminars, research article, dissertations, etc. by using most   suitable words and technical terms efficiently.

            3. Analogies                                                                                                                     [2x1=2]

This section measures your ability to explain the relation between two words.


1.1.2 Mathematics  [40x1]

The format of the multiple-choice questions varies. The solution may require simple computations, manipulations or multi-step problem-solving. These sections aim to test the candidate's understanding of


Mathematics – A (B-Arch)

              1.  Basic Mathematics                                                                                                           [4]

      Sets and Functions,

      Two dimensional and three-dimensional Coordinate Geometry,

            2. Algebra                                                                                                                              [10]


      Complex numbers

      Sequence and series

      Permutation and combination

      Equations and inequalities

      Matrices and Determinants

      Linear Programming


            3. Vector Analysis                                                                                                                  [6]

      Vector Algebra: Vectors and Scalars, product of two, three and four vectors, reciprocal system

      Vector Calculus: Gradient, Curl and Divergence


4. Calculus

          Limits and Continuity, Ordinary and Partial Differentiation

          Indefinite and definite Integration

          Application of Derivatives and Anti-derivatives Ordinary Differential Equations. 



5. Elementary Statistics and Probability 


6. Elementary Trigonometry, Logarithm 


Mathematics – B (For all except B-arch)


1.  Basic Mathematics 

      Sets and Functions,

      Two dimensional and three-dimensional Coordinate Geometry,


2. Algebra


          Complex numbers

          Sequence and series

          Permutation and combination

          Equations and inequalities

          Matrices and Determinants

          Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Diagonalization of matrix Linear Programming


3. Vector Analysis


      Vector Algebra: Vectors and Scalars, product of two, three and four vectors, reciprocal system

      Vector Calculus: Gradient, Curl and Divergence, line integral, surface integral and volume integral.

            4. Calculus  [12]

      Limits and Continuity, Ordinary and Partial Differentiation

      Indefinite and definite Integration

      Application of Derivatives and Anti-derivatives

      Ordinary Differential Equations.

5. Elementary Statistics and Probability 


6. Elementary Trigonometry, Logarithm 


7. Transforms: Laplace transform, Fourier series 




The depth of subject matter in each subject of stream specialized course shall be that of B.E./B.Arch. level relevant courses offered by T.U.


1.2.1 Applied Science (AS)  [50x1]

            1. Mechanical Waves & Oscillations [5]

      Wave motion: Mechanical wave, Velocity of wave, energy, power & Intensity; stationary wave

      Acoustic phenomena: Echo & reverberation, beats, modes of vibration in string and pipes

      Ultrasound: production, applications

            2. Heat & Thermodynamics  [4]

      Fundamentals of heat: Calorimetry, Change of state

      Transfer of heat: Conduction, convection and radiation

      Thermodynamics: Gas laws, kinetic theory of gas, first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics,

      Applications: Entropy, heat engines, refrigerators

            3. Electromagnetic Waves & Oscillations  [8]

      Electric and Magnetic fields: Intensity, potential, potential gradient, capacitors

      DC and AC Circuit: LR, LC, RC, LR, LCR circuits

      Maxwell's Equations: Gauss law, Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, Ampere's law & its modification

      Wave optics: Interference, diffraction, polarization, optical fibers

            4. Modern Physics   [8]

      Electrons: e, e/m, motion of electron in electric and magnetic fields

      Photoelectric Effect: Einstein's equation, solar cell, Photovoltaic cell

      Advanced Materials: Semiconductor, dielectric materials, magnetic materials, superconductor, Nano-technology & materials

      Quantization of energy: Bohr’s theory, energy level, wave-particle duality, uncertainty principle, Laser.

      Radioactivity: radioactive disintegration, fission, fusion

      Energy and Environment: Renewable and non-renewable energy resources, ultraviolet radiation, green-house effect, climate change.


            5. Chemistry in Daily Life [3+2]

      Carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, drugs and their classifications- antacids, antihistamines, neurologically active drugs- tranquilizers, analgesics, antimicrobials antibiotics, anti-septic’s and disinfectants, soaps and detergents.

      Organic and Inorganic polymers, biodegradable and non-bio degradable, conducting polymers

6.  Environmental Chemistry  [4] 

       Water Pollution: Surface and ground water pollution, water pollutants-visible and invisible, chemical and microbiological, their adverse impacts and remedies.

      Air Pollution: Air pollutants, gases SOX, NOX, COX, O3, hydrocarbons, particulatedusts, smokes and fly ash.

7.  Water            [3] 

     Soft and hard, degree of hardness, alkalinity, specification for domestic and industrial purposes, boiler feed water, sludge and scale, water treatment.

8.  Catalysts       [1]

      Action of catalysts, characteristics and mechanism of catalysis.

            9. Electrochemistry                                                                                                                [3]

Electrode potential and its measurements, standard electrode potential, electrochemical cells, electrolytic cells, Nernst equation, EMF of cells, buffer, pH, corrosion, electrochemical series,

10.  Applied Chemistry              [2+2]

      Fuel and Combustion: classification calorific values, coal, petroleum, kerosene, gasoline, biogas.

      Explosives: classification, preparation and applications.

11.  3d Transition Elements     [2]

      Electronic configuration, oxidation states, complex formation, alloy formation and magnetic properties.

12.  Isomerism  [1]

      Stereoisomerism- geometric isomerism, optical isomerism.

            13. Instrumental Technique in Chemical Analysis                                                             [2]

Visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)


1.2.2 Architecture and Planning (AP)  [50×1]

            1.  Architecture                                                                                                                     [35]

          1.1  History of Architecture                                                                                                    [5]

                      1.1.1  History of Nepalese Architecture

                      1.1.2  History of Easter Architecture

                     1.1.3    History of Western Architecture

                      1.1.4  History of Contemporary Architecture

          1.2  Building Material and Technology                                                                                  [5]

                      1.2.1  Building Material-Brick, Timber, Cement, Stone, Aluminum, Mud etc.

                     1.2.2         Building Technology - Load Bearing, Frame Structure, different wall, roof,

floor, etc.


          1.3  Building Science                                                                                                              [5]

                         1.3.1  Climatology

                         1.3.2  Thermal Aspects

                         1.3.3  Architectural Lighting

                         1.3.4  Architectural Acoustics

          1.4  Green Building Design                                                                                                    [5]

                            1.4.1    Green Building Design Concept

1.4.2  Green Building Rating System–LEED, GRIHA, CASBEE, etc.

1.4.3  Passive and active Solar Architecture

1.4.4  Examples of Green Building and Planning

          1.5  Architecture and conservation                                                                                         [5]

1.5.1  Historical monument and building of Nepal and World

1.5.2  Architectural Conservation of Nepal

          1.6  Contemporary Architecture of Nepal                                                                               [5]

1.6.1  Contemporary Architectural practices of Nepal

1.6.2  Problem and way out for future in Nepal

          1.7  Building Services                                                                                                             [5]

                            1.7.1    Electrical Service – Artificial lighting system, Solar Lighting

                            1.7.2    Mechanical Service – HVAC, Lift, Escalator, Solar water heating, etc.

1.7.3  Water Supply and Sanitation

            2.  Planning                                                                                                                           [15]

          2.1  History of Planning – Ancient Town and Settlement                                                      [5]

          2.2  Urban problems in towns of Nepal                                                                                  [5]

          2.3  Urban Environment and Urbanization in Nepal                                                              [5]


1.2.3 Civil & Agricultural Engineering (CA)                                                                       [50 × 1]

             1.  Structural Engineering                                                                                                  [10]

Stresses and strains, Bending and deflection and its equations, Statically determinate structure: displacements by energy principles; static and kinematic indeterminacies; analysis of indeterminate structures; slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods; influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures; trusses; two and three hinged arches; analysis of trusses and frames; concepts of plastic analysis of beams and frames. 

             2.  Geo-technical Engineering                                                                                            [10]

Phase relationship, soil classification, clay mineralogy, soil compaction, permeability, principal of effective stress, seepage analysis, stress distribution, consolidation, shear strength of soil, stability of slopes, soil exploration, earth pressure theories, rigid and flexible retaining structures, bearing capacity and settlement of shallow foundations, analysis of deep foundation (pile, pier, well), foundation soil improvement.

             3.  Water Resources Engineering                                                                                       [10]

Physical properties of Fluid, Fluid pressure, Equilibrium stability of floating bodies, Fluid kinematics, Classification of fluid flow, Dynamics of flows, Euler's equation, Bernoulli's equation, Navier stokes equation Boundary layer theory, Momentum equation, Open channel flow, Uniform and Non uniform flow, Energy & momentum principle for open channel flow, Flow in mobile boundary channel, Flow over notches & weirs, Gradually varied flow, Hydraulic Jump and its analysis, Similitude and physical modeling, Physical hydrology, Surface runoff, Rainfall-runoff correlation, Hydrograph Analysis, Unit hydrographs, Peak flow estimation and statistical hydrology, Flood routing.


4.      Transportation Engineering      [10]

Road transportation in Nepalese context, Highway alignment, Geometric design, Highway drainage system, Highway materials, Traffic Studies, traffic control devices and measures, Road intersection and design, Road pavement, Construction and maintenance of road pavements, Bridge type, site selection, components and protection structures, Tunnel components, requirements and methods of tunneling. 

5.      Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering            [10]

Introduction of Water Supply Engineering, Sources of water, Quantity of Water, WHO guidelines, Nepal Drinking water quality standards, Quality of Water, Intake Works, Water Treatments- natural, artificial, Sedimentation, Filtration, Disinfection, Reservoirs and Distribution System, Conveyance of water, Valves and Fittings. Introduction of sanitary engineering, Quantity of Waste Water, Characteristics and Examination of Sewage, Design and Construction of Sewers, Sewer Appurtenances, Sewage Disposal, sewage Treatment, Sludge Treatment and Disposal, Disposal of Sewage from Isolated Buildings, Solid Waste management, WASH and Ecosan.


1.2.4 Electrical Engineering (EE)                                                                                            [50x1]

1.      Basic Electrical Circuits             [10]

      Network Theorems: Thevenin's, Norton’s, Maximum power & Reciprocity Theorems

      AC circuits: Concept of complex impedance phasor diagram, Active, Reactive & Apparent power, Resonance in AC circuits

      Three phase circuits: Phase & line quantities in three phase system, 3-phase power

      Transient response: Transient response analysis for R-L, R-C & R-L-C circuit. Pole zero plots

      Two port Networks: Z-parameters, Y-parameters & ABCD –parameters


2.      Electrical Machines        [10]

      Electromagnets: Magnetic circuits, Fleming's Right hand & Left-hand rules, Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, electromechanical energy conversion principle

      Transformers: Equivalent circuits, Phasor diagrams, Losses & efficiency, Voltage regulations, Instrument transformers, three phase transformer connections, parallel operation of 1-1 & 3-1 Transformers

      Synchronous machine: Operating principle. Effect of Excitation, Power angle characteristics, Phasor diagrams, Losses & efficiency, Voltage regulations, parallel operation of alternator,

      Induction machine Operating principle, T-S Characteristics, Losses and efficiency, Testing, Starting methods, Speed Control

      DC generator: Construction, Operating principle and characteristics of different types dc generator

      DC motor: Operating principle, Characteristics of different types dc motor, Speed control and starter

3.      Power Systems     [20]

      Transmission line: Line parameters, per unit system representation, single line diagrams, sort, medium & long lines, efficiency & regulations.

      Transmission line design: selection of voltage, conductor, sag calculation, stringing chart, line insulators and string efficiency

      Distribution system: Radial and loop distribution, Rural and Urban Distribution system

      Economics of Generation: Load curve, Load duration curve, Diversity factor. Load factor, loss of load factor, tariff schemes,

      Load flow: Bus classification, Y-bus formation G-S & N-R load flow methods

      Stability studies: Swing equations, equal area criterion, Stability enhancement techniques

      Series & shunt compensations

      Fault calculations: Symmetrical & unsymmetrical faults in power systems, grounded & undergrounded systems, over Voltages in transmission lines, surge arrestors

      Over voltage in transmission line: Temperature over voltage, switching over voltages and lightning overvoltage

      Relays and circuit breakers: Instantaneous & IDMT relays, ABC, VCB & gas circuit Surge arresters brasses, differential & distance protection schemes

      Power control: Load-frequency control, VAR-Volt control

      Safety Engineering: Electric shocks, Equipment Earthing Mat earthing of power stations, measurement of earth resistivity and earth resistances

4.      Power Electronics           [10]

      Power electronics devices: Diode, IGBT, BJT, MOSFET         

      Operational amplifier: Thyristors, GTO, TRAIC

      Rectifiers: Single Phase & three phase rectifiers, uncontrolled and controlled rectifiers

      Inverters: single phase & three phase invertors

      Choppers: Step up and step-down choppers, chopper Classifications.

1.2.5 Electronics and Computer Engineering (EC)                                                               [50x1]

1.      Electrical Circuit and System     [5]

      Ohms law, Kirchhoff’s laws

      The venin's Norton's and maximum power transform theorem

      Active, reactive and apparent power (single & three-phase) and resonance

      Transient and steady state analysis, pole zero plots. two-port parameters.

2.      Electronics Circuit and System             [10]

      Integrated circuit technology and device models

      Operational Amplifier circuits

      Operational Amplifier characterization

      Power supplies and voltage regulators

      Untuned and tuned amplifiers

      Oscillator circuits

      Digital-to-Analog (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital (ADC) conversion

      Instrumentation and isolation amplifiers

Operational amplifier-bipolar transistor logarithmic amplifiers

      Log-antilog circuit application

      Communication circuits

      Switched power supplies

      Introduction to power electronics


3.  Computer Architecture 

          Fundamentals of Computer Architecture & Organization

          Number System

          Boolean Algebra

          Logic Gates

          Combination and Sequential Logic

          A/D and D/A Conversion


          Instruction Set

          Operating System and Application Program Concepts Computer Applications


4.  Computer Networks 


5.  Communication System 

Analog and Digital Communication Theory and System


6.  Object Oriented Programming Language 

      Object oriented programming concepts

      Introduction to C++

      Operator Overloading




      Templates and file handling


7.  Discrete Structure 

      Propositional logic and predicate logic

      Methods of proof and formal reasoning

      Binary relations

      Finite state automata

      Recurrence Relation

      Graph theory and graph algorithms



1.2.6 Mechanical & Industrial Engineering (MI) 


1.  Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 


      Equality of Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Work


      Control Mass and Control Volume Formulation of First Law, Steady State Applications

      Entropy, Second Law of Thermodynamics for an Isolated System, Control Mass and

      Control Volume Formulation of second law

      Second Law, Entropy Relations and Isentropic Process, Heat Engine, Heat Pump and Refrigerator

      Carnot Cycle, Brayton Cycle, Rankin Cycle, Otto Cycle, Diesel Cycle, Vapour

      Compression Cycle

      One dimensional steady state heat Conduction through a plane wall, Radial steady state heat conduction through a hollow cylinder, Heat flow through composite structures, Electrical Analogy for thermal resistance, Convection Fundamentals and Radiation Heat

      Transfer Fundamentals

      IC Engines

             2.  Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machine                                                                            [10]

      Basic concepts and Fluid and flow

      Flow measurement

      Continuity equation, Momentum equation, Bernoulli's equation and their applications

      Viscous flow, flow inside closed conduits and head losses

      Water turbines

      Turbo machines

      Water Pumps

             3.  Mechanics and Strength of Materials                                                                          [12]

      Concept of particles and rigid bodies

      Effect of forces on particles and rigid body

      Applications of equilibrium equations for solving problems of particles and rigid bodies (in 2- Dimensions and 3-Dimensions.)

      Types of structures, statically determinate and indeterminate

      Moments and couples

      Distributed forces, C.G., Centroid, area and Mass moment of inertia,

      Kinematics of particles and rigid bodies

      Equations of motion

      Dynamic equilibrium

      Kinetics of particles and rigid bodies

      Applications of Newton's Second Law

      Application of Principle of Work and Energy

      Principle of Impulse and Momentum

      Conservation of Energy

      Concept of Stress and Strain

      Types of loads and Beams

      Materials Properties and Material Testing

      Shear Force, Bending Moment diagram

      Mechanical Design

             4.  Energy                                                                                                                                [8]

      Sources of conventional energy, fossil fuels, calorific values

      Renewable energy sources and their nature

      Basic concepts of: Solar thermal energy, Solar photo-voltaic energy, wind energy, Biomass, Geothermal energy and Hydraulic energy

      Consumption and environmental aspects of energy

             5.  Industrial Engineering and Management                                                                      [8]

      Classification of manufacturing processes.

      Materials selection criteria

      Elements of cost

      Role of production, operation management and system concepts

      Production planning and control

      Plant location and plant layout design

      Forecasting techniques

      Inventory Control

      Decision making process

      Quality Assurance and Quality Control


1.2.7 MSc in Geospatial Engineering (GE)                                                                            (50x1)        

1. Traditional Surveying, Survey Networks and Modern Techniques of Surveying           [12]

Fundamentals of surveying; triangulation and trilateration; bathymetric survey for determination of depth of waterbodies and profile and cross-sections including discharge measurements; setting out of building, road, bridges and other structures; national trig points, reference level surface (orthometric, ellipsoid, geoid) and gravity measurement; principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing, application of photogrammetry and remote sensing; flight planning; photogrammetric products; different systems of remote sensing; distortions in satellite imageries; image processing and interpretation.

2. Spatial Data and Spatial Information System                                                                        [10]

Map projections and projected coordinate systems; vector and raster data format; topology; spatial data acquisition and analysis (buffer analysis, network analysis, spatial overlay, watershed analysis, terrain analysis, etc.); presentation of outcomes of spatial analysis; importance of GIS and web GIS, different fields of application of GIS and web GIS; E-R model; relational data model; spatial database management system

(SDBMS); standard query language (SQL) for spatial databases 

3. Geodesy, GNSS and Adjustment of Observations                                                                  [12]

Reference systems: astronomical, geocentric, geodetic and plane coordinate systems; ICRF, ITRF, ECEF, WGS84, Everest 1830; transformation between different reference systems; time systems; measurement of gravity potential; terrestrial, astronomical and satellite positioning; GNSS observables and mathematical models for positioning; satellite orbits; GNSS system biases and mitigation measures; satellite geometry and dilution of precision (DoP); GNSS survey techniques; field survey specifications; integration of INS in GNSS; augmentation systems; redundant observations, error eclipse and confidence level; linear and non-linear adjustment models; least square adjustment method; statistical testing (univariate and multivariate).

4. Cartography and spatial visualization                                                                                        [6]

Elements of map; types of map; principles and planning of map design; map design procedure; map layout; color scheme; typographic guidelines; map production and dissemination techniques; application of GIS in map design; static, dynamic, animated, interactive and collaborative web mapping and OGC standards.

5. Cadastre, and Land Administration and Management                                                         [10]

Concept and types of cadastre; importance of cadastral system; analog vs digital cadastral system; different components of cadastre and technical requirements for cadastral survey in Nepalese context; different methods of cadastral survey including workflow; land registration process, updating and archiving of cadastral documents in Nepal; legal framework for cadastral system; international practices in cadastre; different components and advantages of LIS; stakeholders and their role in LIS; maintenance of cadastre and LIS in Nepal; national land policy; land market, taxation, reform and land use planning; land tenure and tenure security; issues of land management; land conflict and its resolution; modernization of land administration and management in Nepal.


1.2.8 M.Sc. in Applied Mathematics (AM)                                                                            (50x1)        

1. Calculus                                                                                                                                       [15]

Double integral; First order linear and non- linear differential equations; Differential equation of first order and first degree and their applications; Linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Second order linear differential equations; Partial differential equation of first order

2. Algebra                                                                                                                                       [15]

      Binary operations and properties of integers: Binary operations, algebraic structures, equivalence relations and equivalence classes, properties of integers and prime number, divisors and greatest common divisors, prime factors and unique factorization theorem, congruencies and residue classes.

      Groups : Definition, semi-groups and groups, order of a group, properties of groups, integral power of an element, subgroups and their properties, cyclic groups, order of an element of a group, normalizer, permutation groups, normal subgroups, quotient groups and their properties, homomorphism, kernel and isomorphism

      Rings and fields: Rings and their special classes, elementary properties of rings, zero divisor and division ring, integral domain, field and their properties.

      Theory of polynomial equations, cubic and biquadratic equations, numerical solution of equations

      Linear maps and matrices. 

3. Mathematical Analysis                                                                                                               [10]

      Elementary logic

      Real number system, point set topology of the real line, sequences and series of the real numbers

      Euclidian spaces and metric spaces, completeness, sequences in metric space, sequences and series of functions

      Improper integrals

4. Fundamentals of Statistics                                                                                                        [10]

      Population and sample,  Presentation of data

      Measures of central tendency and Measures of dispersion

      Moments, skewness and kurtosis

      Index numbers, Time series analysis

      Correlation and regression,  Analysis of categorical data

      Estimation and hypothesis testing


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